22 research outputs found

    Pharmacogenetic Gene–Drug Associations in Pediatric Burn and Surgery Patients

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    Management of critically ill patients requires simultaneous administration of many medications. Treatment for patient comorbidities may lead to drug-drug interactions which decrease drug efficacy or increase adverse reactions. Current practices rely on a one-size-fits-all dosing approach. Pharmacogenetic testing is generally reserved for addressing problems rather than used proactively to optimize care. We hypothesized that burn and surgery patients will have one or more genetic variants in drug metabolizing pathways used by one or more medications administered during the patient's hospitalization. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of variants with abnormal function in the primary drug pathways and identify which medications may be impacted. Genetic (19 whole exome and 11 whole genome) and medication data from 30 pediatric burn and surgery patients were analyzed to identify pharmacogene-drug associations. Nineteen patients were identified with predicted altered function in one or more of the following genes: CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4. The majority had decreased function, except for several patients with CYP2C19 rapid or ultrarapid variants. Some drugs administered during hospitalization that rely on these pathways include hydrocodone, oxycodone, methadone, ibuprofen, ketorolac, celecoxib, diazepam, famotidine, diphenhydramine, and glycopyrrolate. Approximately one-third of the patients tested had functionally impactful genotypes in each of the primary drug metabolizing pathways. This study suggests that genetic variants may in part explain the vast variability in drug efficacy and suggests that future pharmacogenetics research may optimize dosing regimens

    Identification of Cytochrome P450 Polymorphisms in Burn Patients and Impact on Fentanyl Pharmacokinetics: A Pilot Study

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    Pain management is critical for burn care. Unfortunately, interindividual variation in pharmacokinetics (PK) due to burn hypermetabolism and genetic polymorphisms can lead to treatment failures in this at-risk population. Analgesics may be affected by genetic polymorphisms affecting cytochrome P450 (CYP) drug metabolizing enzymes. Fentanyl is a common opiate primarily metabolized by CYP3A4 subtypes. Recent studies demonstrate CYP2D6 variants, affecting fentanyl PK. Functional CYP polymorphisms can significantly alter opiate levels resulting in inadequate analgesia or life-threatening toxicity. The goal of our study was to evaluate fentanyl PK and assess associations with CYP polymorphisms. We obtained samples from the previously banked blood of 13 patients (eight males and five females) with \u3e20% TBSA burns. Mean (SD) patient age was 41.7 (14.5) years, and mean burn size was 25.8 (15.3) %TBSA. Plasma fentanyl was quantified, and CYP genotyping was performed. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using Monolix software (Lixsoft, France) with a two-compartment population model best-representing fentanyl profiles. Three CYP slow-metabolizing genotypes were identified, which included CYP2D6*9, CYP2D6*29, and CYP3A4*1B. All three patients with variant polymorphisms had increased serum fentanyl concentrations due to impaired clearance. This pilot study supports the need for further research in this topic, and CYP genotyping of individual patients prior to receiving opiate analgesics to inform precision-guided decisions, improve therapeutic efficacy, and, most importantly, increase patient well-being and safety

    Transgenerational effects of binge drinking in a primate model: implications for human health

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    ObjectiveTo determine if binge ethanol consumption before ovulation affects oocyte quality, gene expression, and subsequent embryo development.DesignBinge levels of ethanol were given twice weekly for 6 months, followed by a standard in vitro fertilization cycle and subsequent natural mating.SettingNational primate research center.Animal(s)Adult female rhesus monkeys.Intervention(s)Binge levels of ethanol, given twice weekly for 6 months before a standard in vitro fertilization cycle with or without embryo culture. With in vivo development, ethanol treatment continued until pregnancy was identified.Main outcome measure(s)Oocyte and cumulus/granulosa cell gene expression, embryo development to blastocyst, and pregnancy rate.Result(s)Embryo development in vitro was reduced; changes were found in oocyte and cumulus cell gene expression; and spontaneous abortion during very early gestation increased.Conclusion(s)This study provides evidence that binge drinking can affect the developmental potential of oocytes even after alcohol consumption has ceased