55 research outputs found

    Polisaharidi viših gljiva - bioloska uloga, struktura i antioksidativna aktivnost

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    The fungal polysaccharides attract a lot of attention due to their multiple challenging biological properties, such as: anti-tumor, anti-viral, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory and immune-stimulatory activities, which all together make them suitable for application in many quite distinctive areas, such as food industry, biomedicine, cosmetology, agriculture, environmental protection and waste water management. This article presents results with respect to biological properties, structure and procedures related to the isolation and activation of polysaccharides of higher fungi. It is considered and presented along with a review of the critical antioxidative activity and possible influence of the structural composition of polysaccharide extracts (isolated from these higher fungi) upon their antioxidative properties.Polisaharidi gljiva privlače veliku pažnju zbog svojih interesantnih bioloskih svojstava kao sto su: antitumorno, antivirusno, antikomplementarno, antikoagulaciono, hipolipidemijsko dejstvo, kao i imunomodulatorska i imunostimulativna aktivnost, sto ih sve čini pogodnim za primenu u mnogim oblastima, među kojima su i prehrambena industrija, kozmetika, biomedicina, poljoprivreda, zastita životne sredine i otpadnih voda. Oksidativna ostecenja prirodnih i industrijski pripremljenih namirnica predstavljaju veliki ekonomski problem na globalnom nivou, s obzirom da direktno utiču na promenu organoleptičkih osobina proizvoda, pri čemu dolazi i do stvaranja potencijalno toksičnih jedinjenja. Zbog toga se danas sve veća pažnja posvećuje istraživanjima novih prirodnih izvora antioksidanasa, među kojima su veoma značajni i polisaharidni ekstrakti različitih bazidiomiceta. U ovom radu su prikazana bioloska svojstva, struktura, kao i postupci izolovanja i aktivacije polisaharida visih gljiva. Dat je i pregled antioksidativne aktivnosti polisaharidnih ekstrakata visih gljiva i razmatran je uticaj strukturnih karakteristika ovih ekstrakata na antioksidativna svojstva

    Medicinal Mushrooms

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    Since beginning of mankind nature is the most important source of medicines. Bioactive compounds produced by living organisms can be used directly as drugs or as lead compounds for drug development. Besides, the natural material can be used as crude drug for preparation of powder or extracts. Plants have traditionally been used as a source of most medical systems and as such herbal medicines constitute an important part of traditional and evidence-based medicine worldwide. In contrast though, the broad medicinal use of mushrooms was for a very long time restricted to Asian countries. Nowadays, the medicinal use of mushrooms, so called, medicinal mushrooms’, is increasing also in Western and other countries. This is underlined not only by growing sales of mushroom products but also by an increasing number of scientific papers and international conferences in this field. Medicinal mushrooms can be defined as macroscopic fungi, mostly higher Basidiomycetes, which are used in the form of extracts or powder for prevention, alleviation, or healing of diseases and/or for nutritional reasons. Presently medicinal mushrooms are mainly used as dietary supplements or functional food. Nevertheless they have the potential to become real drugs of traditional and/or evidence-based medicine. To explore this potential high quality products, preclinical and clinical trials according to the regulations, and legal authorization are necessary. The most important mushroom species are Ganoderma lucidum, Coriolus versicolor (L.:Fr.)Quél. (syn. Trametes versicolor [L.:Fr.]Pilát), Lentinula edodes (Berk.)Pegler, Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al., Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.)Sacc. (Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.)Sung & al.), Grifola frondosa (Dicks.:Fr.)Gray, Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr.)Pers. and some others. Due to the extended traditional use of these mushrooms extensive knowledge about in vitro activities and mode of action and effects in animal assays is available. Some information about several chemical constituents responsible for the pharmacological effects is also available. Needless to say more research on the pharmacology and chemistry of these and others, so far less explored mushrooms, is urgently needed. What’s also missing, however, are investigations about structure-activity-relationships and possible toxicological risks of these mushrooms and their products, clinical trials and suitable quality critera for mushroom products and established methods for its control. We received 13 research papers in this field which indicates that mushroom research is still very limited. However, this special issue includes 6 high-quality peer-reviewed papers demonstrating essential new findings about different pharmacological effects of several medicinal mushrooms and their components in vitro, in animal assays and in humans. Chan et al. and Kawai et al. showed that Amauroderma rugosum and Pleurotus eryngii have promising antiinflammatory properties. A. rugosum is used by indigenous communities in Malaysia, P. eryngii is consumed as fresh cultivated mushroom worldwide. Clitocybe nuda, also known as Lepista nuda, is an edible mushroom in Europe. It is known for its antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. The study by Shi et al. validated the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of Clitocybe nuda in diabetic mice and gives detailed insight into its mode of action. Beta-glucans (MBGS) constitute one of the most important groups of bioactive compounds in mushrooms. They have been reported as anticancer agents mainly by strengthening immune activities. The papers of Chen et al. and Wu et al. focus on investigations of beta-glucans from Ganoderma lucidum, the famous Reishi or Ling Zhi mushroom. The beta-glucans isolated from solid culture of Ganoderma lucidum inhibit, in combination with radiation, tumor metastasis in Lewis lung carcinoma bearing mice (Chen at el.), whereas the oral administration of MBG, also obtained from mycelium of G. lucidum, modulates immune responses in an allergy murine model (Wu et al.). The study of Rossi et al. investigated the influence of a mixture of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis on the performance and stress resistance of cyclists by monitoring the testosterone/cortisol ratio in saliva, as well as oxidative stress. Although only a small number of participants were included in this study, the presented results confirm the potential clinical use of mushrooms in general and the protection of the athletes from overtraining syndrome in particular

    The methanolic extract of Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link fruiting body shows antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and anti human tumor cell lines properties

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    Being Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link recognized as a medicinal and edible mushroom, this work intends to reveal new interesting bioactive molecules that could be isolated from this species. Hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds were analysed by chromatographic techniques coupled to different detectors. The methanolic extract of C. militaris was tested for its antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and anti-proliferative properties in different human tumor cell lines. Mannitol (2.01 g/100 g dw) and trehalose (24.71 g/100 g) were the free sugars found in C. militaris. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (68.87%) predominated over saturated fatty acids (23.40%) and δ-tocopherol was the only isoform of vitamin E detected (55.86 μg/100 g). The organic acids found in this mushroom were oxalic, citric and fumaric acids (0.33, 7.97 and 0.13 g/100g, respectively). p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was the only phenolic acid quantified in this species (0.02 mg/100 g); although cinnamic acid was also found (0.11 mg/100 g). The methanolic extract of C. militaris proved to inhibit lipid peroxidation, have reducing power and scavenge free radicals. This extract also revealed strong antibacterial and antifungal properties. Finally, the C. militaris extract was able to inhibit the proliferation of MCF-7 (breast), NCI-H460 (non-small lung), HCT-15 (colon) and HeLa (cervical) human carcinoma cell lines.Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT, Portugal) and COMPETE/QREN/EU for financial support to this work (research project PTDC/AGRALI/ 110062/2009 and SFRH/BPD/BPD/68344/2010 to R. Calhelha), to CIMO (strategic project PEst-OE/AGR/UI0690/2011) and to L. Barros researcher contract under “Programa Compromisso com Ciência-2008”). The authors also thank to Serbian Ministry of Education and Science for financial support (grant number 173032)

    Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for final healthy product - natural preservatives in yoghurt

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    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt

    Mushroom β-glucan and polyphenol formulations as natural immunity boosters and balancers: nature of the application

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    Mushrooms are experiencing a kind of renaissance as a part of the contemporary human diet. These valuable organisms are more than food, they fi t in perfectly as a novel market group known as nutra-mycoceuticals. Immune-balancing mushroom dietary fibers and secondary metabolites such as polyphenols are the main focus of the healthcare industry. Wellness and cosmetic companies are increasingly using mushroom extracts rich in these ingredients. This review considers the basic molecular immunomodulatory mechanisms of action of the most commonly used mushroom dietary fibers, β-glucans. The literature data on their bioavailability, metabolic transformations, preclinical and human clinical research, and safety are discussed. Immunomodulatory mechanisms of polyphenol ingredients are also considered. These molecules present great potential in the design of the new immunity balancer formulations according to their widespread structural diversity. Finally, we draw attention to the perspectives of modern trends in mushroom nutraceutical and cosmeceutical formulations to strengthen and balance immunity

    Polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis show similarities in their structures and their immunomodulatory effects on human monocytic THP-1 cells

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Mushroom polysaccharides have traditionally been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of disorders like infectious illnesses, cancers and various autoimmune diseases. Crude mushroom extracts have been tested without detailed chemical analyses of its polysaccharide content. For the present study we decided to chemically determine the carbohydrate composition of semi-purified extracts from 2 closely related and well known basidiomycete species, i.e. <it>Agaricus bisporus </it>and <it>A. brasiliensis </it>and to study their effects on the innate immune system, in particular on the <it>in vitro </it>induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, using THP-1 cells.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Mushroom polysaccharide extracts were prepared by hot water extraction and precipitation with ethanol. Their composition was analyzed by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. PMA activated THP-1 cells were treated with the extracts under different conditions and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was evaluated by qPCR.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Semi-purified polysaccharide extracts of <it>A. bisporus </it>and <it>A. brasiliensis </it>(= <it>blazei</it>) were found to contain (1→6),(1→4)-linked α-glucan, (1→6)-linked β-glucan, and mannogalactan. Their proportions were determined by integration of <sup>1</sup>H-NMR signs, and were considerably different for the two species. <it>A. brasiliensis </it>showed a higher content of β-glucan, while <it>A. bisporus </it>presented mannogalactan as its main polysaccharide. The extracts induced a comparable increase of transcription of the pro-inflammatory cytokine genes IL-1β and TNF-α as well as of COX-2 in PMA differentiated THP-1 cells. Pro-inflammatory effects of bacterial LPS in this assay could be reduced significantly by the simultaneous addition of <it>A. brasiliensis </it>extract.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>The polysaccharide preparations from the closely related species <it>A. bisporus </it>and <it>A. brasiliensis </it>show major differences in composition: <it>A. bisporus </it>shows high mannogalactan content whereas <it>A. brasiliensis </it>has mostly β-glucan. Semi-purified polysaccharide extracts from both <it>Agaricus </it>species stimulated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes, while the polysaccharide extract of <it>A. brasiliensis </it>reduced synthesis of these cytokines induced by LPS, suggesting programmable immunomodulation.</p
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