2,012 research outputs found

    Noise induced hearing loss: the role of oxidative stress

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    Introduction: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a relevant source of hearing disability affecting the general population, and accounts for about 16% of all the reported cases of disabling hearing loss in the adult population worldwide. NIHL can follow workplace-related and recreational noise exposure, and can be influenced by individual factors such as age, sex, genetic predisposition and socio-economic factors. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to provide a quick overview of the principal ndings in noise induced hearing loss, focusing on the role of oxidative stress and antioxidant intervention. Review: Oxidative stress plays a central role in leading to a condition of NIHL. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) largely participate in cellular mechanisms that underlie mainly the outer hair cell death after noise exposure and lead to sensorineural hearing loss. The beneficial effects of antioxidant supplementation have been demonstrated by several experimental studies in animals, while the observed results in humans are mixed. Conclusion: NIHL still represents a widespread condition among the general population; with a higher prevalence in developing countries among workers, and in developed countries among young adults exposed to leisure noise. Extensive literature confirms that increasing antioxidant levels in the organ of Corti may be an appropriate approach towards understanding NIHL in humans by increasing the endogenous antioxidant response or by administering antioxidant molecules systemically or locally

    Hearing loss in Takayasu's arteritis: a role for hyperbaric oxygen therapy?

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    In the scientific community, there is growing interest regarding associated symptoms in Takayasu’s arteritis (TA), an autoimmune condition that mainly affects the medium and large arteries. Hearing loss (HL) is a rare complication of TA that is often overlooked and has severe consequences on the quality of life. HL mainly presents as sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) and responds to corticosteroid therapy. In the authors’ opinion, the reasons for misdiagnosing HL in patients with TA are lack of evidence re- garding this rare complication and because TA involves large caliber arteries, instead of small vessels that are typical of the inner ear. We recently used HBOT for a 36-year-old woman with TA, who had two SSNHL episodes in different ears in an 11-month period and observed a significant improvement in the patient's hearing. Although this was a single case finding and HBOT was administered together with steroid therapy, the significant recovery of HL in both ears following this therapeutic approach may be worth sharing with the scientific community. In conclusion, we recommend that awareness for inner ear involvement in TA should increase and that HL should be considered a possible complication of TA and should be treated with corticosteroid therapy and, after collecting further evidence, HBOT

    Comparison principle and constrained radial symmetry for the subdiffusive p-laplacian

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    A comparison principle for the subdiffusive p-Laplacian in a possibly non-smooth and unbounded open set is proved. The result requires that the involved suband supersolution are positive, and the ratio of the former to the latter is bounded. As an application, constrained radial symmetry for overdetermined problems is obtained. More precisely, both Dirichlet and Neumann conditions are prescribed on the boundary of a bounded open set, and the Neumann condition depends on the distance from the origin. The domain of the problem, unknown at the beginning, turns out to be a ball centered at the origin if a positive solution exists. Counterexamples are also discussed

    GAZIEL. En las trincheras. El reportero que mejor narrĂł la primera Guerra Mundial

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    Optimal management of Cogan’s syndrome: a multidisciplinary approach

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    Cogan's syndrome (CS) is a rare disorder characterized by nonsyphilitic interstitial keratitis (IK) and audio-vestibular symptoms. CS affects mainly young Caucasian adults, mostly during their first three decades of age, and may develop into typical and atypical variants. Typical CS manifests primarily with IK and hearing loss, whereas atypical CS usually presents with inflammatory ocular manifestations in association with audio-vestibular symptoms but mostly different Ménière-like symptoms and, more frequently, with systemic inflammation (70%), of which vasculitis is the pathogenic mechanism. CS is considered as an autoimmune- or immune-mediated disease supported mainly by the beneficial response to corticosteroids. Using well-developed assays, antibodies to inner ear antigens, anti-Hsp70, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were found to be associated with CS. Corticosteroids represent the first line of treatment, and multiple immunosuppressive drugs have been tried with variable degrees of success. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockers and other biological agents are a recent novel therapeutic option in CS. Cochlear implantation is a valuable rescue surgical strategy in cases with severe sensorineural hearing loss unresponsive to intensive and/or innovative immunosuppressive regimens

    Ressenyes

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    Index de les obres ressenyades: Montserrat JIMÉNEZ SUREDA, Girona, 1793-1795. Guerra Gran i organització política a la monarquia dels Borbon

    Ressenyes

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    Index de les obres ressenyades: Enzo TRAVERSO, A Sangre y Fuego : de la Guerra Civil europea, 1914-194

    Ressenyes

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    Index de les obres ressenyades: GAZIEL, En las trincheras. El reportero que mejor narrĂł la primera Guerra Mundial

    Hearing loss, tinnitus, hyperacusis, and diplacusis in professional musicians: a systematic review

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    Professional musicians (PMs) are at high risk of developing hearing loss (HL) and other audiological symptoms such as tinnitus, hyperacusis, and diplacusis. The aim of this systematic review is to (A) assess the risk of developing HL and audiological symptoms in PMs and (B) evaluate if different music genres (Pop/Rock Music-PR; Classical Music-CL) expose PMs to different levels of risk of developing such conditions. Forty-one articles including 4618 PMs were included in the study. HL was found in 38.6% PMs; prevalence was significantly higher among PR (63.5%) than CL (32.8%) PMs; HL mainly affected the high frequencies in the 3000-6000 Hz range and was symmetric in 68% PR PMs and in 44.5% CL PMs. Tinnitus was the most common audiological symptom, followed by hyperacusis and diplacusis. Tinnitus was almost equally distributed between PR and CL PMs; diplacusis was more common in CL than in PR PMs, while prevalence of hyperacusis was higher among PR PMs. Our review showed that PR musicians have a higher risk of developing HL compared to CL PMs; exposure to sounds of high frequency and intensity and absence of ear protection may justify these results. Difference in HL symmetry could be explained by the type of instruments used and consequent single-sided exposure
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