955 research outputs found

    Statistical VS Wave Realism in the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

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    Different realistic attitudes towards wavefunctions and quantum states are as old as quantum theory itself. Recently Pusey, Barret and Rudolph (PBR) on the one hand, and Auletta and Tarozzi (AT) on the other, have proposed new interesting arguments in favor of a broad realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics that can be considered the modern heir to some views held by the fathers of quantum theory. In this paper we give a new and detailed presentation of such arguments, propose a new taxonomy of different realistic positions in the foundations of quantum mechanics and assess the scope, within this new taxonomy, of these realistic arguments

    Pulmonary artery thrombosis in home patient with a mild COVID-19 disease

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    Abstract COVID-19 has been described as the cause for a proinflammatory and hypercoagulable state that induces thrombotic vascular lesions and, in more severe cases, disseminated intravascular coagulation. Increased values of d-dimers are related to the severity of the disease and are associated with worst prognosis. Intensive care studies reported an increased risk of pulmonary embolism and venous thrombosis diseases in COVID-19 compared with the historical control group even in patients who underwent the low-molecular-weight heparin (LWMH) prophylaxis. Patients with COVID-19 who have a stable clinical condition do not require hospitalisation and are treated at home with symptomatic therapy. LWMH is reserved for those with reduced mobility. In this case report, we describe a COVID-19 patient with pulmonary artery thrombosis treated at home

    Lietteen levittämisen kehittäminen pienelle lypsykarjatilalle : Kannattavuuslaskurin kehittäminen

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    Suomessa lantaa tuotetaan vuosittain noin 18 miljoonaa tonnia. Rehujen ravinteista noin 70‚Äď100 prosenttia kulkeu-tuu lantaan. Lantaan erittyv√§t ravintoaineet tulee pyrki√§ saamaan peltoon mahdollisimman pienell√§ h√§vikill√§. Oikeal-la lannan k√§sittelyll√§ voidaan optimoida lannasta saatavat hy√∂dyt. Lannan levityst√§ pit√§√§ tarkastella kokonaisuutena, jossa kuormaus, kuljetus ja levitys muodostavat ketjun. T√§m√§n ketjun kapasiteetti ja toimivuus riippuvat kaikkien osien mitoituksesta sek√§ yhteensopivuudesta. Lannan levityksen sujuvuuteen vaikuttavat my√∂s talouskeskuksen sis√§iset ja peltojen v√§liset liikennej√§rjestelyt. Ty√∂n tavoitteena oli auttaa viljelij√§√§ lietekaluston valinnassa siten, ett√§ siit√§ tulisi nykyist√§ edullisempaa ja ajallisesti tehokkaampaa. Maidon hinnan ollessa alhainen on t√§rke√§√§, ett√§ maataloudessa tehd√§√§n valintoja, jotka kannattavuudeltaan ovat parhaita tilalle. Kaikilla tiloilla ei v√§ltt√§m√§tt√§ ole ajateltu, kuinka paljon lietteen levitykseen k√§ytet√§√§n aikaa. Harva tilallinen antaa omalle ty√∂lleen tuntihintaa, jolla voidaan laskea s√§√§st√∂t ajank√§yt√∂ss√§. Tilalliset yleens√§ levitt√§v√§t lietteen aina itse, koska urakoitsija ei p√§√§se v√§ltt√§m√§tt√§ levitt√§m√§√§n haluttuun aikaan. Tutkimusmenetelm√§n√§ on toiminnallinen opinn√§yte- ja kehitt√§misty√∂, jossa tuotetaan Levityskehitys-laskuri, jolla pystyt√§√§n vertaamaan nykyist√§ kalustoa, uutta tai k√§ytetty√§ kalustoa ja urakointia. T√§ss√§ ty√∂ss√§ kohdetilan tietoja, mutta laskuria voi k√§ytt√§√§ kuka tahansa t√§ytt√§m√§ll√§ laskurin omilla tiedoillaan, jolloin saa tulokset omasta tilastaan. T√§ll√§ tavalla kukin tila voi katsoa, mik√§ vaihtoehto voisi olla hyv√§ heille. Levityskehitys-laskuria testaa yhden robotin lypsykarjatila. Tilalla on noin 150 hehtaaria peltoa, mutta lietett√§ levitet√§√§n vain 95 hehtaarille. Tila on miettinyt vaihtoa isompaan ja modernimpaan lietevaunuun. Ajallisuuskustannus on kiinnostanut my√∂s tilaa. Laskuria olisi hyv√§ kehitt√§√§ niin, ett√§ laskuri kertoisi ns. kipupisteen, jossa laskuri n√§ytt√§isi miss√§ vaiheessa on kan-nattavaa ulkoistaa lietteen levitys verrattuna siihen, ett√§ itse levitt√§isi lietteet. Olisi hyv√§, jos laskuri ottaisi mahdollisen uuden traktorin hankinnan huomioon. Laskuria voisi kehitt√§√§ my√∂s eteenp√§in siten, ett√§ laskuri n√§ytt√§isi paremmin, kannattaako ty√∂nteko itse ajallisesti tai rahallisesti vai onko kannattavampaa k√§ytt√§√§ ulkopuolista ty√∂voimaa. Laskurissa voisi ottaa levityksen ajonopeuden huomioon, jolloin aikakustannus olisi tarkempikin. Olisi hyv√§, jos laskurissa jotenkin voisi ottaa huomioon renkaiden pintapaineen vaikutuksen satotasoihin ja ravinteiden kiertoon.In Finland, approximately 18 million tonnes of manure are produced annually. Approximately 70‚Äď100 % from fodder nutrients transfer to manure. The nutrients extracted to manure should be spread to the field with as minimal loss as possible. With the right processing of manure its benefits can be optimized. Manure spreading should be inspected as a whole, where loading, transporting and spreading form a chain. The capacity and functionality of this chain depend on the sizing and compatibility of every part. The farm traffic arrangements between the economy center and the fields effect the efficiency of manure spreading. The aim of the thesis is to help farmers to choose affordable and worktime saving liquid manure spreading equipment. While milk prices are low it is important that choices made for farm profitability are the best. Not all farmers think how time consuming liquid manure spreading is. Usually farmers spread slurry by themselves because the contractor may not be able to do it at the desired time. The research method is functional and the outcome of the development work is a calculator called Levityskehitys. With this calculator it is possible to compare current equipment to new equipment or to contracting. The data used in this thesis is received from the target farm but the calculator can be used on any farm by using own data. This way farms can see which option would be the best for them. The calculator is tested by a dairy farm that has one milking robot. The tester farm has around 150 hectares of field but slurry is spread only on 95 hectares. The tester farm has been thinking about upgrading slurry spreading equipment to bigger and more modern. The consumed time during slurry spreading is also one of the interests of the farm. The calculator could be improved in a way that it would tell a certain threshold where the calculator shows a point when a contractor would be more cost-effective compared to slurry spreading by the farmer him- or herself. It would be good if the calculator could take into account a possible purchase of a tractor. The calculator could be developed further so that it would show better if selfmade work is more cost-effective and time-efficient than using external workforce. The calculator would consider spreading speed in the calculation. Then the results concerning the time cost would be more accurate. A good thing would be that the calculator could consider the effect of ground pressure of tires on yields and nutrient circulation

    A LOGICAL MODELING OF SEVERE IGNORANCE

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    In the logical context, ignorance is traditionally defined recurring to epistemic logic S4S_4 \cite{Hintikka1962}. In particular, an agent ignores a formula ŌÜ\varphi when s/he does not know neither ŌÜ\varphi nor its negation ¬¨ŌÜ\neg\varphi: \neg\K\varphi\land\neg\K\neg\varphi (where \K is the epistemic operator for knowledge). In other words, ignorance is essentially interpreted as ``lack of knowledge''. \textcolor{red}{This received view has - as we point out - some problems, in particular we will highlight how it does not allow to express a type of content-theoretic ignorance, i.e. an ignorance of ŌÜ\varphi that stems from an unfamiliarity with its meaning.} Contrarily to this trend, in this paper, we introduce and investigate a modal logic having a primitive epistemic operator \I, modeling ignorance. Our modal logic is essentially constructed on the modal logics based on weak Kleene three-valued logic introduced by Krister Segerberg \cite{Segerberg67}. Such non-classical propositional basis allows to define a Kripke-style semantics with the following, very intuitive, interpretation: a formula ŌÜ\varphi is ignored by an agent if ŌÜ\varphi is neither true nor false in every world accessible to the agent. As a consequence of this choice, we obtain \textcolor{red}{a type of content-theoretic} notion of ignorance, which is essentially different from the traditional approach based on S4S_4. \textcolor{red}{We dub it \emph{severe ignorance}.} We axiomatize, prove completeness and decidability for the logic of reflexive (three-valued) Kripke frames, which we find the most suitable candidate for our novel proposal and, finally, compare our approach with the most traditional one

    Sähköurakan laskeminen uudiskohteeseen määrälaskentaohjelmaa hyödyntäen

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    Tässä opinnäytetyössä selvitetään, mitä hyötyjä ohjelmallisella tarjouslaskennalla on verrattuna perinteiseen käsin tehtävään tarjouslaskentaan. Työssä vertaillaan käsintehdyn sekä ohjelmallisen laskennan eroavaisuuksia uudiskohteessa, joka on kolmen rivitalon kokonaisuus ja suunniteltu vanhusten käyttöön. Opinnäytetyö tehtiin yhteistyössä Sähkö-Säe Oy:n kanssa. Ohjelmallinen urakkalaskenta suoritettiin työssä JCAD sähkömäärät määrälaskentaohjelmalla. JCAD:sta saadut laskennan tulokset tuotiin Pajadatan Xpaja-ohjelman tarjouslaskentaosioon. Tämän jälkeen saatiin JCAD:n tuottamien tarvikelistojen avulla tuotteet, joita kohteeseen laskettiin ja ohjelman laskeman ajan työlle. Tämän jälkeen saatiin laskettua euromääräinen hinta urakalle määräluetteloiden sekä työhön kuuluvan ajan perusteella. Urakkalaskenta ohjelmalla saatuja tuloksia vertaillaan työssä käsin tehtyyn laskentaan ja selvitetään, mistä eroavaisuudet hinnassa syntyvät. Työssä nähdään laskennalliset erot tarvikkeiden sekä työhön käytetyn ajan perusteella. Lopuksi käydään ohjelmallisen laskennan edut käsin tehtyyn laskentaan ja millä tavoin JCAD määrälaskentaohjelmisto auttaisi yritystä tarjouslaskentaa tehdessä.The purpose of this thesis was to determine the benefits of using programmable calculations instead of the traditional manual calculations. The thesis was done by comparing manual calculations and programmable computations in a new construction, a three terraced house complex designed for the elderly. This thesis was made in cooperation with the Sähkö-Säe Oy. Programmable calculation was made with JCAD electicity quantity program. Results of the JCAD were transferred to Pajadata Xpaja program. The Xpaja program results were put into a list of articles and times of calculated working hours. After this, calculated contract price was obtained with the list of the articles and working time. The results were computational difference in articles and work time. Finally comparing manual calculations and programmable calculations, JCAD electricity quantity program will be a good option to help the company with calculation

    Knowledge-of-own-factivity, the definition of surprise, and a solution to the Surprise Examination paradox

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    Fitch's Paradox and the Paradox of the Knower both make use of the Factivity Principle. The latter also makes use of a second principle, namely the Knowledge-of-Factivity Principle. Both the principle of factivity and the knowledge thereof have been the subject of various discussions, often in conjunction with a third principle known as Closure. In this paper, we examine the well-known Surprise Examination paradox considering both the principles on which this paradox rests and some formal characterisations of the surprise notion, crucial in this paradox. Standard formalizations of the Surprise Examination paradox in modal logic do not seem, at first glance, to depend on either factivity or knowledge-of-factivity, but we will argue that both factivity and knowledge-of-factivity play a key implicit role in the paradox. Namely, they are implicitly, perhaps unintentionally, used in order to simplify the definition of surprise. We analyze modal logical formalizations of three versions of the paradox concluding that the Surprise Examination paradox is the result of two flaws: the assumption of knowledge-of-factivity, and the over-simplification of the definition of "surprise" accordingly. By fixing these two flaws, the Surprise Examination paradox vanishes

    "On s'y croirait !" une psychothérapie réussie en réalité virtuelle

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    International audienceNon contente de transporter l‚Äôutilisateur de son salon vers des univers toujours plus proches du r√©el, la r√©alit√© virtuelle (VR) s‚Äôimpose petit √† petit comme outil th√©rapeutique √† part enti√®re. Recr√©ant des environnements r√©els de fa√ßon virtuelle, elle offre une libert√© encore in√©dite en psychoth√©rapie. Environnements rares, situations dangereuses ou plus √©cologiques, elle est un outil tant pour l‚Äô√©valuation, le diagnostic que pour la prise en charge. Cette efficacit√© (Maltby et coll., 2002 ; Freeman et coll., 2017) repose sur sa capacit√© √† induire des pens√©es, des √©motions et des comportements fid√®les √† ceux v√©cus dans la r√©alit√© non m√©diatis√©e. Tout l‚Äôenjeu de la r√©alit√© virtuelle est donc de cr√©er un sentiment ‚Äúd‚Äô√™tre l√†‚ÄĚ dans l‚Äôenvironnement virtuel comme s‚Äôil √©tait r√©el. Ce sentiment est appel√© sentiment de pr√©sence (SP). Difficilement palpable, ce SP permet pourtant de consid√©rer l‚Äôexp√©rience virtuelle comme r√©aliste (Aymerich et coll., 2010) ce qui offre un terrain favorable √† la r√©ussite d‚Äôune psychoth√©rapie par la r√©alit√© virtuelle. En effet, le SP favorise le transfert des apprentissages acquis en VR aux situations r√©elles (Viaud-Delmon, 2007), permettrait de diminuer le ¬ę cybermalaise ¬Ľ li√© √† l‚Äôabandon th√©rapeutique (Witmer et Singer, 1998) et favoriserait l‚Äôengagement dans la th√©rapie (Lambrey, 2010). Mais √† ce jour, et sans consensus en termes de d√©finition, le SP est mis de c√īt√© par toute une partie des recherches sur l‚Äôefficacit√© de la r√©alit√© virtuelle en psychoth√©rapie. Pourtant, de nombreuses recherches ont mis en lumi√®re des √©l√©ments permettant l‚Äė√©mergence du SP, que ce soit les moyens technologiques (Sanchez-Vives, 2005), les stimuli auditifs (Viaud-Delmon, 2006), le son spatialis√© (Hendrix et coll., 1996), les sensations tactiles (Dinh et coll., 1999), les odeurs (BAU, 2016) ou encore l‚Äôinteractivit√© avec l‚ÄôEV (Sastry et Boyd, 1998). L‚Äôobjectif de cette communication, sera d‚Äôaborder le fonctionnement, les outils de mesure, mais aussi, et surtout les facteurs permettant de favoriser le sentiment de pr√©sence afin de participer √† proposer des psychoth√©rapies novatrices, mais surtout efficaces
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