15 research outputs found

    Multimodal Abnormalities of Brain Structure and Function in Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies

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    AbstractObjective: Imaging studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) have reported structural and functional abnormalities in many, spatially diverse brain regions. Quantitative meta-analyses of this literature, however, have failed to find statistically significant between-study spatial convergence, other than transdiagnostic-only effects. In the present study, the authors apply a novel, multi-modal, meta-analytic approach to test the hypothesis that MDD exhibits spatially convergent structural and functional brain abnormalities.Methods: This coordinate-based meta-analysis (CBMA) included voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies and resting-state voxel-based pathophysiology (VBP) studies imaging blood flow (BF), glucose metabolism, regional homogeneity (ReHo), and amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF/fALFF). Input data were grouped into three primary meta-analytic classes: gray matter atrophy; increased function; and, decreased function in MDD patients relative to healthy controls. Secondary meta-analyses grouped across primary categories. Tertiary analyses grouped by medication status and absence of psychiatric comorbidity. Activation likelihood estimation (ALE) was used for all analyses.Results: In total 92 publications reporting 152 experiments were identified, collectively representing 2,928 MDD patients. Primary analyses detected no convergence across studies. Secondary analyses identified portions of subgenual cingulate, hippocampus, amygdala, putamen, retrosplenial cortex, and middle occipital/inferior temporal gyri as demonstrating convergent abnormalities. Tertiary analyses (clinical subtypes) showed improved convergence relative to secondary analyses.Conclusions: CBMA identified spatially convergent structural (VBM) and functional (VBP) abnormalities in MDD. Present findings suggest replicable neuroimaging features associated with MDD, beyond the transdiagnostic effects reported in prior meta-analysis. Our findings support continued research focus on the subgenual cingulate and other select regionsÔÇÖ role in MDD

    Identification of cellular changes associated with increased production of human growth hormone in a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell line

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    A proteomics approach was used to identify the proteins potentially implicated in the cellular response concomitant with elevated production levels of human growth hormone in a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line following exposure to 0.5 mM butyrate and 80 muM zinc sulphate in the production media. This involved incorporation of two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis and protein identification by a combination of N-terminal sequencing, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry, amino acid analysis and cross species database matching. From these identifications a CHO 2-D reference,map and annotated database have been established. Metabolic labelling and subsequent autoradiography showed the induction of a number of cellular proteins in response to the media additives butyrate and zinc sulphate. These were identified as GRP75, enolase and thioredoxin. The chaperone proteins GRP78, HSP90, GRP94 and HSP70 were not up-regulated under these conditions

    Co-alteration Network Architecture of Major Depressive Disorder: A Multi-modal Neuroimaging Assessment of Large-scale Disease Effects

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    Major depressive disorder (MDD) exhibits diverse symptomology and neuroimaging studies report widespread disruption of key brain areas. Numerous theories underpinning the network degeneration hypothesis (NDH) posit that neuropsychiatric diseases selectively target brain areas via meaningful network mechanisms rather than as indistinct disease effects. The present study tests the hypothesis that MDD is a network-based disorder, both structurally and functionally. Coordinate-based meta-analysis and Activation Likelihood Estimation (CBMA-ALE) were used to assess the convergence of findings from 92 previously published studies in depression. An extension of CBMA-ALE was then used to generate a node-and-edge network model representing the co-alteration of brain areas impacted by MDD. Standardized measures of graph theoretical network architecture were assessed. Co-alteration patterns among the meta-analytic MDD nodes were then tested in independent, clinical T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional (rs-fMRI) data. Differences in co-alteration profiles between MDD patients and healthy controls, as well as between controls and clinical subgroups of MDD patients, were assessed. A 65-node 144-edge co-alteration network model was derived for MDD. Testing of co-alteration profiles in replication data using the MDD nodes provided distinction between MDD and healthy controls in structural data. However, co-alteration profiles were not distinguished between patients and controls in rs-fMRI data. Improved distinction between patients and healthy controls was observed in clinically homogenous MDD subgroups in T1 data. MDD abnormalities demonstrated both structural and functional network architecture, though only structural networks exhibited between-groups differences. Our findings suggest improved utility of structural co-alteration networks for ongoing biomarker development

    The role of genetic testing in diagnosis and care of inherited cardiac conditions in a specialised multidisciplinary clinic

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    Abstract Background The diagnostic yield of genetic testing for inherited cardiac diseases is up to 40% and is primarily indicated for screening of at-risk relatives. Here, we evaluate the role of genomics in diagnosis and management among consecutive individuals attending a specialised clinic and identify those with the highest likelihood of having a monogenic disease. Methods A retrospective audit of 1697 consecutive, unrelated probands referred to a specialised, multidisciplinary clinic between 2002 and 2020 was performed. A concordant clinical and genetic diagnosis was considered solved. Cases were classified as likely monogenic based on a score comprising a positive family history, young age at onset, and severe phenotype, whereas low-scoring cases were considered to have a likely complex aetiology. The impact of a genetic diagnosis was evaluated. Results A total of 888 probands fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and genetic testing identified likely pathogenic or pathogenic (LP/P) variants in 330 individuals (37%) and suspicious variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in 73 (8%). Research-focused efforts identified 46 (5%) variants, missed by conventional genetic testing. Where a variant was identified, this changed or clarified the final diagnosis in a clinically useful way for 51 (13%). The yield of suspicious VUS across ancestry groups ranged from 15 to 20%, compared to only 10% among Europeans. Even when the clinical diagnosis was uncertain, those with the most monogenic disease features had the greatest diagnostic yield from genetic testing. Conclusions Research-focused efforts can increase the diagnostic yield by up to 5%. Where a variant is identified, this will have clinical utility beyond family screening in 13%. We demonstrate the value of genomics in reaching an overall diagnosis and highlight inequities based on ancestry. Acknowledging our incomplete understanding of disease phenotypes, we propose a framework for prioritising likely monogenic cases to solve their underlying cause of disease

    Variant Location Is a Novel Risk Factor for Individuals With Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy Due to a Desmoplakin ( DSP) Truncating Variant.

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    BACKGROUND: Truncating variants in desmoplakin ( DSPtv) are an important cause of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy; however the genetic architecture and genotype-specific risk factors are incompletely understood. We evaluated phenotype, risk factors for ventricular arrhythmias, and underlying genetics of DSPtv cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Individuals with DSPtv and any cardiac phenotype, and their gene-positive family members were included from multiple international centers. Clinical data and family history information were collected. Event-free survival from ventricular arrhythmia was assessed. Variant location was compared between cases and controls, and literature review of reported DSPtv performed. RESULTS: There were 98 probands and 72 family members (mean age at diagnosis 43┬▒8 years, 59% women) with a DSPtv, of which 146 were considered clinically affected. Ventricular arrhythmia (sudden cardiac arrest, sustained ventricular tachycardia, appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy) occurred in 56 (33%) individuals. DSPtv location and proband status were independent risk factors for ventricular arrhythmia. Further, gene region was important with variants in cases (cohort n=98; Clinvar n=167) more likely to occur in the regions, resulting in nonsense mediated decay of both major DSP isoforms, compared with n=124 gnomAD control variants (148 [83.6%] versus 29 [16.4%]; P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In the largest series of individuals with DSPtv, we demonstrate that variant location is a novel risk factor for ventricular arrhythmia, can inform variant interpretation, and provide critical insights to allow for precision-based clinical management

    Variant Location Is a Novel Risk Factor for Individuals With Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy Due to a Desmoplakin (DSP) Truncating Variant

    No full text
    BACKGROUND: Truncating variants in desmoplakin (DSPtv) are an important cause of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy; however the genetic architecture and genotype-specific risk factors are incompletely understood. We evaluated phenotype, risk factors for ventricular arrhythmias, and underlying genetics of DSPtv cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Individuals with DSPtv and any cardiac phenotype, and their gene-positive family members were included from multiple international centers. Clinical data and family history information were collected. Event-free survival from ventricular arrhythmia was assessed. Variant location was compared between cases and controls, and literature review of reported DSPtv performed. RESULTS: There were 98 probands and 72 family members (mean age at diagnosis 43┬▒8 years, 59% women) with a DSPtv, of which 146 were considered clinically affected. Ventricular arrhythmia (sudden cardiac arrest, sustained ventricular tachycardia, appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy) occurred in 56 (33%) individuals. DSPtv location and proband status were independent risk factors for ventricular arrhythmia. Further, gene region was important with variants in cases (cohort n=98; Clinvar n=167) more likely to occur in the regions, resulting in nonsense mediated decay of both major DSP isoforms, compared with n=124 gnomAD control variants (148 [83.6%] versus 29 [16.4%]; P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In the largest series of individuals with DSPtv, we demonstrate that variant location is a novel risk factor for ventricular arrhythmia, can inform variant interpretation, and provide critical insights to allow for precision-based clinical management
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