35 research outputs found

    Genome-wide significant association with seven novel multiple sclerosis risk loci

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    Objective: A recent large-scale study in multiple sclerosis (MS) using the ImmunoChip platform reported on 11 loci that showed suggestive genetic association with MS. Additional data in sufficiently sized and independent data sets are needed to assess whether these loci represent genuine MS risk factors. Methods: The lead SNPs of all 11 loci were genotyped in 10 796 MS cases and 10 793 controls from Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands, Austria and Russia, that were independent from the previously reported cohorts. Association analyses were performed using logistic regression based on an additive model. Summary effect size estimates were calculated using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: Seven of the 11 tested SNPs showed significant association with MS susceptibility in the 21 589 individuals analysed here. Meta-analysis across our and previously published MS case-control data (total sample size n=101 683) revealed novel genome-wide significant association with MS susceptibility (p<5×10−8) for all seven variants. This included SNPs in or near LOC100506457 (rs1534422, p=4.03×10−12), CD28 (rs6435203, p=1.35×10−9), LPP (rs4686953, p=3.35×10−8), ETS1 (rs3809006, p=7.74×10−9), DLEU1 (rs806349, p=8.14×10−12), LPIN3 (rs6072343, p=7.16×10−12) and IFNGR2 (rs9808753, p=4.40×10−10). Cis expression quantitative locus effects were observed in silico for rs6435203 on CD28 and for rs9808753 on several immunologically relevant genes in the IFNGR2 locus. Conclusions: This study adds seven loci to the list of genuine MS genetic risk factors and further extends the list of established loci shared across autoimmune diseases

    Genome-wide significant association with seven novel multiple sclerosis risk loci

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    Objective: A recent large-scale study in multiple sclerosis (MS) using the ImmunoChip platform reported on 11 loci that showed suggestive genetic association with MS. Additional data in sufficiently sized and independent data sets are needed to assess whether these loci represent genuine MS risk factors. Methods: The lead SNPs of all 11 loci were genotyped in 10 796 MS cases and 10 793 controls from Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands, Austria and Russia, that were independent from the previously reported cohorts. Association analyses were performed using logistic regression based on an additive model. Summary effect size estimates were calculated using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: Seven of the 11 tested SNPs showed significant association with MS susceptibility in the 21 589 individuals analysed here. Meta-analysis across our and previously published MS case-control data (total sample size n=101 683) revealed novel genome-wide significant association with MS susceptibility (p<5×10−8) for all seven variants. This included SNPs in or near LOC100506457 (rs1534422, p=4.03×10−12), CD28 (rs6435203, p=1.35×10−9), LPP (rs4686953, p=3.35×10−8), ETS1 (rs3809006, p=7.74×10−9), DLEU1 (rs806349, p=8.14×10−12), LPIN3 (rs6072343, p=7.16×10−12) and IFNGR2 (rs9808753, p=4.40×10−10). Cis expression quantitative locus effects were observed in silico for rs6435203 on CD28 and for rs9808753 on several immunologically relevant genes in the IFNGR2 locus. Conclusions: This study adds seven loci to the list of genuine MS genetic risk factors and further extends the list of established loci shared across autoimmune diseases

    Power estimation for non-standardized multisite studies

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    AbstractA concern for researchers planning multisite studies is that scanner and T1-weighted sequence-related biases on regional volumes could overshadow true effects, especially for studies with a heterogeneous set of scanners and sequences. Current approaches attempt to harmonize data by standardizing hardware, pulse sequences, and protocols, or by calibrating across sites using phantom-based corrections to ensure the same raw image intensities. We propose to avoid harmonization and phantom-based correction entirely. We hypothesized that the bias of estimated regional volumes is scaled between sites due to the contrast and gradient distortion differences between scanners and sequences. Given this assumption, we provide a new statistical framework and derive a power equation to define inclusion criteria for a set of sites based on the variability of their scaling factors. We estimated the scaling factors of 20 scanners with heterogeneous hardware and sequence parameters by scanning a single set of 12 subjects at sites across the United States and Europe. Regional volumes and their scaling factors were estimated for each site using Freesurfer's segmentation algorithm and ordinary least squares, respectively. The scaling factors were validated by comparing the theoretical and simulated power curves, performing a leave-one-out calibration of regional volumes, and evaluating the absolute agreement of all regional volumes between sites before and after calibration. Using our derived power equation, we were able to define the conditions under which harmonization is not necessary to achieve 80% power. This approach can inform choice of processing pipelines and outcome metrics for multisite studies based on scaling factor variability across sites, enabling collaboration between clinical and research institutions

    Assessment of microRNA-related SNP effects in the 3′ untranslated region of the IL22RA2 risk locus in multiple sclerosis

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    Abstract Recent large-scale association studies have identified over 100 MS risk loci. One of these MS risk variants is single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs17066096, located 14 kb downstream of IL22RA2. IL22RA2 represents a compelling MS candidate gene due to the role of IL-22 in autoimmunity; however, rs17066096 does not map into any known functional element. We assessed whether rs17066096 or a nearby proxy SNP may exert pathogenic effects by affecting microRNA-to-mRNA binding and thus IL22RA2 expression using comprehensive in silico predictions, in vitro reporter assays, and genotyping experiments in 6,722 individuals. In silico screening identified two predicted microRNA binding sites in the 3′UTR of IL22RA2 (for hsa-miR-2278 and hsamiR-411-5p) encompassing a SNP (rs28366) in moderate linkage disequilibrium with rs17066096 (r 2 =0.4). The binding of both microRNAs to the IL22RA2 3′UTR was confirmed in vitro, but their binding affinities were not significantly affected by rs28366. Association analyses revealed significant Electronic supplementary material The online version of this articl

    Novel multiple sclerosis susceptibility loci implicated in epigenetic regulation.

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    We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility in German cohorts with 4888 cases and 10,395 controls. In addition to associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, 15 non-MHC loci reached genome-wide significance. Four of these loci are novel MS susceptibility loci. They map to the genes L3MBTL3, MAZ, ERG, and SHMT1. The lead variant at SHMT1 was replicated in an independent Sardinian cohort. Products of the genes L3MBTL3, MAZ, and ERG play important roles in immune cell regulation. SHMT1 encodes a serine hydroxymethyltransferase catalyzing the transfer of a carbon unit to the folate cycle. This reaction is required for regulation of methylation homeostasis, which is important for establishment and maintenance of epigenetic signatures. Our GWAS approach in a defined population with limited genetic substructure detected associations not found in larger, more heterogeneous cohorts, thus providing new clues regarding MS pathogenesis

    Attitude of Midwives towards Fluoride Recommendations and Oral Prevention in Infants and Young Children

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    Early childhood caries is a challenge. Early dental screening flanked by multidisciplinary preventions by pediatricians, dentists, and midwives (MWs) may be helpful. New recommendations for dental screening in children (FUs) and fluoride have been introduced in Germany. The aim of this study was to investigate whether midwives consider FUs useful and implement early childhood caries prevention, as well as fluoride recommendations. The survey was conducted using an online questionnaire. Demographic data, including 11 items on early childhood dental prophylaxis and fluoride, were requested. Agreement was recorded using Likert scales. The data were analyzed descriptively. Two hundred and seventeen female MWs participated (age: 44.1 (11.04) years). One hundred and four (47.9%) participants knew about the FUs. Of the MWs, 30.7% found a referral from the first tooth to be very important (important/neutral/unimportant: 27%/27.9%/14.4%), compared with 84.8% for the entire primary dentition (11.8%/2.8%/0.5%). Of the MWs, 41.7% always recommended fluoride toothpaste from the first tooth (often/occasionally/rarely/never: 22.7%/12.4%/7.9%/15.3%) and 48.1% completely rejected fluoride-free toothpaste (always/often/occasionally/rarely: 9.8%/8.9%/17.3%/15.9%). In addition, 54.8% never recommended the use of fluoride tablets (always/often/occasionally/rarely: 9.2%/7.4%/10.2%/18.4%). The FUs are not yet well-known among MWs, and only less than one-third recommended dental check-ups, starting with the first tooth. This contrasts with the high uptake of fluoridated toothpaste. More educational work should be carried out to convince more MWs of the benefits of the FUs

    Preservation of neuronal function as measured by clinical and MRI endpoints in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: how effective are current treatment strategies?

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    <p><b>Introduction</b>: Approved medications for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis have shown to be effective in terms of their anti-inflammatory potential. However, it is also crucial to evaluate what long-term effects a patient can expect from current MS drugs in terms of preventing neurodegeneration. Here we aim to provide an overview of the current treatment strategies in MS with a specific focus on potential neuroprotective effects.</p> <p><b>Areas covered</b>: Randomized, double-blind and placebo or referral-drug controlled phase 2a/b and phase 3 trials were examined; non-blinded phase 4 studies (extension studies) were included to provide long-term data, if not otherwise available. Endpoints considered were expanded disability status scale, various neuropsychological tests, percent brain volume change and T1-hypointense lesions as well as multiple sclerosis functional composite, confirmed disease progression, and no evidence of disease activity.</p> <p><b>Expert commentary</b>: Overall, neuroprotective functions of classical MS therapeutics are not sufficiently investigated, but available data show limited effects. Thus, further research and development in neuroprotection are warranted. When counselling patients, potential long-term beneficial effects should be presented more conservatively.</p

    Of Milk and Blood: Innocent III and the Jews, Revisited

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    NR1H3 p.Arg415Gln Is Not Associated to Multiple Sclerosis Risk

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    Aarno Palotie ja Janna Saarela ovat työryhmän Int Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Co jäseniä.A recent study by Wang et al. (2016a) claims that the low-frequency variant NR1H3 p.Arg415Gln is sufficient to cause multiple sclerosis in certain individuals and determines a patient's likelihood of primary progressive disease. We sought to replicate this finding in the International MS Genetics Consortium(IMSGC) patient collection, which is 13-fold larger than the collection of Wang et al. (2016a), but we find no evidence that this variant is associated with either MS or disease subtype. Wang et al. (2016a) also report a common variant association in the region, which we show captures the association the IMSGC reported in 2013. Therefore, we conclude that the reported low-frequency association is a false positive, likely generated by insufficient sample size. The claim of NR1H3 mutations describing a Mendelian form of MS-of which no examples exist-can therefore not be substantiated by data. This Matters Arising paper is in response to Wang et al. (2016a), published in Neuron. See also the related Matters Arising paper by Minikel and MacArthur (2016) and the response by Wang et al. (2016b), published in this issue.Non peer reviewe
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