557 research outputs found

    miRNA Expression Profiling in Migrating Glioblastoma Cells: Regulation of Cell Migration and Invasion by miR-23b via Targeting of Pyk2

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    Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common and lethal type of primary brain tumor. Clinical outcome remains poor and is essentially palliative due to the highly invasive nature of the disease. A more thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms that drive glioma invasion is required to limit dispersion of malignant glioma cells.We investigated the potential role of differential expression of microRNAs (miRNA) in glioma invasion by comparing the matched large-scale, genome-wide miRNA expression profiles of migrating and migration-restricted human glioma cells. Migratory and migration-restricted cell populations from seven glioma cell lines were isolated and profiled for miRNA expression. Statistical analyses revealed a set of miRNAs common to all seven glioma cell lines that were significantly down regulated in the migrating cell population relative to cells in the migration-restricted population. Among the down-regulated miRNAs, miR-23b has been reported to target potential drivers of cell migration and invasion in other cell types. Over-expression of miR-23b significantly inhibited glioma cell migration and invasion. A bioinformatics search revealed a conserved target site within the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of Pyk2, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase previously implicated in the regulation of glioma cell migration and invasion. Increased expression of miR-23b reduced the protein expression level of Pyk2 in glioma cells but did not significantly alter the protein expression level of the related focal adhesion kinase FAK. Expression of Pyk2 via a transcript variant missing the 3'UTR in miR-23b-expressing cells partially rescued cell migration, whereas expression of Pyk2 via a transcript containing an intact 3'UTR failed to rescue cell migration.Reduced expression of miR-23b enhances glioma cell migration in vitro and invasion ex vivo via modulation of Pyk2 protein expression. The data suggest that specific miRNAs may regulate glioma migration and invasion to influence the progression of this disease

    Acquiring reading and vocabulary in Dutch and English: the effect of concurrent instruction

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    To investigate the effect of concurrent instruction in Dutch and English on reading acquisition in both languages, 23 pupils were selected from a school with bilingual education, and 23 from a school with education in Dutch only. The pupils had a Dutch majority language background and were comparable with regard to social-economic status (SES). Reading and vocabulary were measured twice within an interval of 1 year in Grade 2 and 3. The bilingual group performed better on most English and some of the Dutch tests. Controlling for general variables and related skills, instruction in English contributed significantly to the prediction of L2 vocabulary and orthographic awareness at the second measurement. As expected, word reading fluency was easier to acquire in Dutch with its relatively transparent orthography in comparison to English with its deep orthography, but the skills intercorrelated highly. With regard to cross-linguistic transfer, orthographic knowledge and reading comprehension in Dutch were positively influenced by bilingual instruction, but there was no indication of generalization to orthographic awareness or knowledge of a language in which no instruction had been given (German). The results of the present study support the assumption that concurrent instruction in Dutch and English has positive effects on the acquisition of L2 English and L1 Dutch

    Predictors of reading literacy for first and second language learners

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    In this study an attempt was made to construct a multi-factor model predicting the development of reading literacy in the upper grades of primary school in the Netherlands for subgroups of 729 first language (L1) learners and 93 second language (L2) learners. Following a longitudinal design, it was explored to what extent the variation in reading literacy development in L1 and L2 from grade 4 to grade 6 can be explained from children’s word decoding, language, mathematics and nonverbal reasoning skills, reading motivation and self confidence as well as their home reading resources. The results showed that L1 and L2 learners differed in reading literacy skills, language, mathematics, and reasoning skills. Structural equation modelling showed that the reading literacy development in both L1 and L2 learners could be explained from decoding, language, mathematics and reasoning skills, as well as their motivation and self-confidence. A striking difference was the fact that home reading resources had an impact on reading literacy in L1 learners but not in L2 learners

    Search for new phenomena in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum in pp collisions at √ s = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    Results of a search for new phenomena in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum are reported. The search uses 20.3 fb−1 of √ s = 8 TeV data collected in 2012 with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events are required to have at least one jet with pT > 120 GeV and no leptons. Nine signal regions are considered with increasing missing transverse momentum requirements between Emiss T > 150 GeV and Emiss T > 700 GeV. Good agreement is observed between the number of events in data and Standard Model expectations. The results are translated into exclusion limits on models with either large extra spatial dimensions, pair production of weakly interacting dark matter candidates, or production of very light gravitinos in a gauge-mediated supersymmetric model. In addition, limits on the production of an invisibly decaying Higgs-like boson leading to similar topologies in the final state are presente

    Combined measurement of differential and total cross sections in the H → γγ and the H → ZZ* → 4ℓ decay channels at s=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector