1,445 research outputs found

    Body condition score (BCS) and metabolic status of shelter dogs

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    A group of 147 shelter dogs were weighted and assigned a body condition score (BCS) using a 9 point scale system, in order to evaluate the prevalence of obesity in the kennel. More than 60% of the animals showed a BCSÂł6 (overweight and obese) and this condition was mainly attributed to an excess of carbohydrates and fat in the diet. In 67/147 dogs, a blood sample was drawn and the effects of BCS, age and time spent in the shelter were evaluated on biochemical parameters. Obese dogs showed significantly higher levels of triglycerides (P<0.01), while increasing BCS determined only an increasing non significant trend on cholesterol values. Age influenced creatinine (P<0.05) and the oldest dogs scoring BCSÂł6 registered significant higher NEFA (P<0.05) and CK (P=0.01) levels. Time spent in the shelter did not affect any parameter. The dogs' metabolic condition reflects the need of taking more care of the quality of feed administered in the shelters to avoid the negative health effects caused by chronic obesity

    Identification and rejection of scattered neutrons in AGATA

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    Gamma rays and neutrons, emitted following spontaneous fission of 252Cf, were measured in an AGATA experiment performed at INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro in Italy. The setup consisted of four AGATA triple cluster detectors (12 36-fold segmented high-purity germanium crystals), placed at a distance of 50 cm from the source, and 16 HELENA BaF2 detectors. The aim of the experiment was to study the interaction of neutrons in the segmented high-purity germanium detectors of AGATA and to investigate the possibility to discriminate neutrons and gamma rays with the gamma-ray tracking technique. The BaF2 detectors were used for a time-of-flight measurement, which gave an independent discrimination of neutrons and gamma rays and which was used to optimise the gamma-ray tracking-based neutron rejection methods. It was found that standard gamma-ray tracking, without any additional neutron rejection features, eliminates effectively most of the interaction points due to recoiling Ge nuclei after elastic scattering of neutrons. Standard tracking rejects also a significant amount of the events due to inelastic scattering of neutrons in the germanium crystals. Further enhancements of the neutron rejection was obtained by setting conditions on the following quantities, which were evaluated for each event by the tracking algorithm: energy of the first and second interaction point, difference in the calculated incoming direction of the gamma ray, figure-of-merit value. The experimental results of tracking with neutron rejection agree rather well with Geant4 simulations

    Evaluation of polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity in agri-food wastes and by-products using chemical and physiological extraction

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    EU-28 produces about 100 Mtonnes/year of food waste, of which 40% is generated from agri-food industries. Agri-food waste (AFW) and by-products may contain components that could be valorised for their bioactivity. However, the bioaccessibility of these products is highly variable and dependent on a wide range of factors, including food matrix characteristics. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the total phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity of some by-products and AFW using two different extraction methods. Twelve samples of by products (grape marc, Camelina sativa cake, olive pomace and whey) and 12 samples of AFW (fruits and vegetables waste FVW, citrus pulp, strawberry and orange dried) were processed using: methanol extraction (chemical procedure) and in vitro physiological extraction simulating pig gastro-intestinal tract adapted from Regmi et al., 2009. Soy and wheat were included as controls. Afterwards, the polyphenolic content was assessed by Folin\u2013Ciocalteu assay while antioxidant capacity was determined by 2,2-Azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic Acid (ABTS) assay. Results obtained showed that the chemical extracts of by-products and AFW contain different amount of polyphenols; in particular, as expected, the grape marc showed the highest significant (4.5% w/w; p&lt;.05) polyphenolic content compared to all samples considered. Of note, Camilina sativa cake, olive pomace, FVW, orange and strawberry dried showed a polyphenolic content of 1.3, 0.7, 1.3, 1.6 and 1.3% w/w, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of grape marc exhibited a higher (p&lt;.05) value of 573.6 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g compared to the other samples considered. Camilina sativa cake, olive pomace, FVW, orange and strawberry dried showed an antioxidant capacity of 29.2, 11.0, 28.4, 16.3 and 31.0mmol TE/g. The physiological extraction of grape marcs, Camilina sativa cake, olive pomace, FVW, orange, strawberry dried yielded a polyphenolic content of 3.6, 1.8, 3.2, 3.6 and 2.3% w/w, respectively. The antioxidant capacity showed a similar trend to polyphenolic content after physiological extraction. The results obtained in this study indicate that AFW and by-products could be considered a promising bioaccessible source of antioxidants and phenolic compounds with industrial applications for the production of ingredients to functionalize feedstuffs for monogastric animal

    The small GTPase Rab29 is a common regulator of immune synapse assembly and ciliogenesis

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    Acknowledgements We wish to thank Jorge GalĂĄn, Gregory Pazour, Derek Toomre, Giuliano Callaini, Joel Rosenbaum, Alessandra Boletta and Francesco Blasi for generously providing reagents and for productive discussions, and Sonia Grassini for technical assistance. The work was carried out with the financial support of Telethon (GGP11021) and AIRC.Peer reviewedPostprin

    Developmental changes in the role of different metalinguistic awareness skills in Chinese reading acquisition from preschool to third grade

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    Copyright @ 2014 Wei et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.The present study investigated the relationship between Chinese reading skills and metalinguistic awareness skills such as phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness for 101 Preschool, 94 Grade-1, 98 Grade-2, and 98 Grade-3 children from two primary schools in Mainland China. The aim of the study was to examine how each of these metalinguistic awareness skills would exert their influence on the success of reading in Chinese with age. The results showed that all three metalinguistic awareness skills significantly predicted reading success. It further revealed that orthographic awareness played a dominant role in the early stages of reading acquisition, and its influence decreased with age, while the opposite was true for the contribution of morphological awareness. The results were in stark contrast with studies in English, where phonological awareness is typically shown as the single most potent metalinguistic awareness factor in literacy acquisition. In order to account for the current data, a three-stage model of reading acquisition in Chinese is discussed.National Natural Science Foundation of China and Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

    First Evidence of Shape Coexistence in the Ni-78 Region : Intruder 0(2)(+) State in Ge-80

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    The N = 48 Ge-80 nucleus is studied by means of beta-delayed electron-conversion spectroscopy at ALTO. The radioactive Ga-80 beam is produced through the isotope separation on line photofission technique and collected on a movable tape for the measurement of gamma and e(-) emission following beta decay. An electric monopole E0 transition, which points to a 639(1) keV intruder 0(2)(+) state, is observed for the first time. This new state is lower than the 2(1)(+) level in Ge-80, and provides evidence of shape coexistence close to one of the most neutron-rich doubly magic nuclei discovered so far, Ni-78. This result is compared with theoretical estimates, helping to explain the role of monopole and quadrupole forces in the weakening of the N = 50 gap at Z = 32. The evolution of intruder 0(2)(+) states towards Ni-78 is discussed.Peer reviewe