35 research outputs found

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    Systems Biology Approaches Reveal a Specific Interferon-Inducible Signature in HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy

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    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that persists lifelong in the host. In ∼4% of infected people, HTLV-1 causes a chronic disabling neuroinflammatory disease known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The pathogenesis of HAM/TSP is unknown and treatment remains ineffective. We used gene expression microarrays followed by flow cytometric and functional assays to investigate global changes in blood transcriptional profiles of HTLV-1-infected and seronegative individuals. We found that perturbations of the p53 signaling pathway were a hallmark of HTLV-1 infection. In contrast, a subset of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes was over-expressed in patients with HAM/TSP but not in asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers or patients with the clinically similar disease multiple sclerosis. The IFN-inducible signature was present in all circulating leukocytes and its intensity correlated with the clinical severity of HAM/TSP. Leukocytes from patients with HAM/TSP were primed to respond strongly to stimulation with exogenous IFN. However, while type I IFN suppressed expression of the HTLV-1 structural protein Gag it failed to suppress the highly immunogenic viral transcriptional transactivator Tax. We conclude that over-expression of a subset of IFN-stimulated genes in chronic HTLV-1 infection does not constitute an efficient host response but instead contributes to the development of HAM/TSP

    High-Content, High-Throughput Analysis of Cell Cycle Perturbations Induced by the HSP90 Inhibitor XL888

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    BACKGROUND: Many proteins that are dysregulated or mutated in cancer cells rely on the molecular chaperone HSP90 for their proper folding and activity, which has led to considerable interest in HSP90 as a cancer drug target. The diverse array of HSP90 client proteins encompasses oncogenic drivers, cell cycle components, and a variety of regulatory factors, so inhibition of HSP90 perturbs multiple cellular processes, including mitogenic signaling and cell cycle control. Although many reports have investigated HSP90 inhibition in the context of the cell cycle, no large-scale studies have examined potential correlations between cell genotype and the cell cycle phenotypes of HSP90 inhibition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address this question, we developed a novel high-content, high-throughput cell cycle assay and profiled the effects of two distinct small molecule HSP90 inhibitors (XL888 and 17-AAG [17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin]) in a large, genetically diverse panel of cancer cell lines. The cell cycle phenotypes of both inhibitors were strikingly similar and fell into three classes: accumulation in M-phase, G2-phase, or G1-phase. Accumulation in M-phase was the most prominent phenotype and notably, was also correlated with TP53 mutant status. We additionally observed unexpected complexity in the response of the cell cycle-associated client PLK1 to HSP90 inhibition, and we suggest that inhibitor-induced PLK1 depletion may contribute to the striking metaphase arrest phenotype seen in many of the M-arrested cell lines. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis of the cell cycle phenotypes induced by HSP90 inhibition in 25 cancer cell lines revealed that the phenotypic response was highly dependent on cellular genotype as well as on the concentration of HSP90 inhibitor and the time of treatment. M-phase arrest correlated with the presence of TP53 mutations, while G2 or G1 arrest was more commonly seen in cells bearing wt TP53. We draw upon previous literature to suggest an integrated model that accounts for these varying observations

    Table3_Calcium signaling mediates proliferation of the precursor cells that give rise to the ciliated left-right organizer in the zebrafish embryo.DOCX

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    Several of our internal organs, including heart, lungs, stomach, and spleen, develop asymmetrically along the left-right (LR) body axis. Errors in establishing LR asymmetry, or laterality, of internal organs during early embryonic development can result in birth defects. In several vertebrates—including humans, mice, frogs, and fish—cilia play a central role in establishing organ laterality. Motile cilia in a transient embryonic structure called the “left-right organizer” (LRO) generate a directional fluid flow that has been proposed to be detected by mechanosensory cilia to trigger asymmetric signaling pathways that orient the LR axis. However, the mechanisms that control the form and function of the ciliated LRO remain poorly understood. In the zebrafish embryo, precursor cells called dorsal forerunner cells (DFCs) develop into a transient ciliated structure called Kupffer’s vesicle (KV) that functions as the LRO. DFCs can be visualized and tracked in the embryo, thereby providing an opportunity to investigate mechanisms that control LRO development. Previous work revealed that proliferation of DFCs via mitosis is a critical step for developing a functional KV. Here, we conducted a targeted pharmacological screen to identify mechanisms that control DFC proliferation. Small molecule inhibitors of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) were found to reduce DFC mitosis. The SERCA pump is involved in regulating intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) concentration. To visualize Ca2+ in living embryos, we generated transgenic zebrafish using the fluorescent Ca2+ biosensor GCaMP6f. Live imaging identified dynamic cytoplasmic Ca2+ transients (“flux”) that occur unambiguously in DFCs. In addition, we report Ca2+ flux events that occur in the nucleus of DFCs. Nuclear Ca2+ flux occurred in DFCs that were about to undergo mitosis. We find that SERCA inhibitor treatments during DFC proliferation stages alters Ca2+ dynamics, reduces the number of ciliated cells in KV, and alters embryo laterality. Mechanistically, SERCA inhibitor treatments eliminated both cytoplasmic and nuclear Ca2+ flux events, and reduced progression of DFCs through the S/G2 phases of the cell cycle. These results identify SERCA-mediated Ca2+ signaling as a mitotic regulator of the precursor cells that give rise to the ciliated LRO.</p

    Table4_Calcium signaling mediates proliferation of the precursor cells that give rise to the ciliated left-right organizer in the zebrafish embryo.DOCX

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    Several of our internal organs, including heart, lungs, stomach, and spleen, develop asymmetrically along the left-right (LR) body axis. Errors in establishing LR asymmetry, or laterality, of internal organs during early embryonic development can result in birth defects. In several vertebrates—including humans, mice, frogs, and fish—cilia play a central role in establishing organ laterality. Motile cilia in a transient embryonic structure called the “left-right organizer” (LRO) generate a directional fluid flow that has been proposed to be detected by mechanosensory cilia to trigger asymmetric signaling pathways that orient the LR axis. However, the mechanisms that control the form and function of the ciliated LRO remain poorly understood. In the zebrafish embryo, precursor cells called dorsal forerunner cells (DFCs) develop into a transient ciliated structure called Kupffer’s vesicle (KV) that functions as the LRO. DFCs can be visualized and tracked in the embryo, thereby providing an opportunity to investigate mechanisms that control LRO development. Previous work revealed that proliferation of DFCs via mitosis is a critical step for developing a functional KV. Here, we conducted a targeted pharmacological screen to identify mechanisms that control DFC proliferation. Small molecule inhibitors of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) were found to reduce DFC mitosis. The SERCA pump is involved in regulating intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) concentration. To visualize Ca2+ in living embryos, we generated transgenic zebrafish using the fluorescent Ca2+ biosensor GCaMP6f. Live imaging identified dynamic cytoplasmic Ca2+ transients (“flux”) that occur unambiguously in DFCs. In addition, we report Ca2+ flux events that occur in the nucleus of DFCs. Nuclear Ca2+ flux occurred in DFCs that were about to undergo mitosis. We find that SERCA inhibitor treatments during DFC proliferation stages alters Ca2+ dynamics, reduces the number of ciliated cells in KV, and alters embryo laterality. Mechanistically, SERCA inhibitor treatments eliminated both cytoplasmic and nuclear Ca2+ flux events, and reduced progression of DFCs through the S/G2 phases of the cell cycle. These results identify SERCA-mediated Ca2+ signaling as a mitotic regulator of the precursor cells that give rise to the ciliated LRO.</p

    Video4_Calcium signaling mediates proliferation of the precursor cells that give rise to the ciliated left-right organizer in the zebrafish embryo.AVI

    No full text
    Several of our internal organs, including heart, lungs, stomach, and spleen, develop asymmetrically along the left-right (LR) body axis. Errors in establishing LR asymmetry, or laterality, of internal organs during early embryonic development can result in birth defects. In several vertebrates—including humans, mice, frogs, and fish—cilia play a central role in establishing organ laterality. Motile cilia in a transient embryonic structure called the “left-right organizer” (LRO) generate a directional fluid flow that has been proposed to be detected by mechanosensory cilia to trigger asymmetric signaling pathways that orient the LR axis. However, the mechanisms that control the form and function of the ciliated LRO remain poorly understood. In the zebrafish embryo, precursor cells called dorsal forerunner cells (DFCs) develop into a transient ciliated structure called Kupffer’s vesicle (KV) that functions as the LRO. DFCs can be visualized and tracked in the embryo, thereby providing an opportunity to investigate mechanisms that control LRO development. Previous work revealed that proliferation of DFCs via mitosis is a critical step for developing a functional KV. Here, we conducted a targeted pharmacological screen to identify mechanisms that control DFC proliferation. Small molecule inhibitors of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) were found to reduce DFC mitosis. The SERCA pump is involved in regulating intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) concentration. To visualize Ca2+ in living embryos, we generated transgenic zebrafish using the fluorescent Ca2+ biosensor GCaMP6f. Live imaging identified dynamic cytoplasmic Ca2+ transients (“flux”) that occur unambiguously in DFCs. In addition, we report Ca2+ flux events that occur in the nucleus of DFCs. Nuclear Ca2+ flux occurred in DFCs that were about to undergo mitosis. We find that SERCA inhibitor treatments during DFC proliferation stages alters Ca2+ dynamics, reduces the number of ciliated cells in KV, and alters embryo laterality. Mechanistically, SERCA inhibitor treatments eliminated both cytoplasmic and nuclear Ca2+ flux events, and reduced progression of DFCs through the S/G2 phases of the cell cycle. These results identify SERCA-mediated Ca2+ signaling as a mitotic regulator of the precursor cells that give rise to the ciliated LRO.</p

    Table9_Calcium signaling mediates proliferation of the precursor cells that give rise to the ciliated left-right organizer in the zebrafish embryo.DOCX

    No full text
    Several of our internal organs, including heart, lungs, stomach, and spleen, develop asymmetrically along the left-right (LR) body axis. Errors in establishing LR asymmetry, or laterality, of internal organs during early embryonic development can result in birth defects. In several vertebrates—including humans, mice, frogs, and fish—cilia play a central role in establishing organ laterality. Motile cilia in a transient embryonic structure called the “left-right organizer” (LRO) generate a directional fluid flow that has been proposed to be detected by mechanosensory cilia to trigger asymmetric signaling pathways that orient the LR axis. However, the mechanisms that control the form and function of the ciliated LRO remain poorly understood. In the zebrafish embryo, precursor cells called dorsal forerunner cells (DFCs) develop into a transient ciliated structure called Kupffer’s vesicle (KV) that functions as the LRO. DFCs can be visualized and tracked in the embryo, thereby providing an opportunity to investigate mechanisms that control LRO development. Previous work revealed that proliferation of DFCs via mitosis is a critical step for developing a functional KV. Here, we conducted a targeted pharmacological screen to identify mechanisms that control DFC proliferation. Small molecule inhibitors of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) were found to reduce DFC mitosis. The SERCA pump is involved in regulating intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) concentration. To visualize Ca2+ in living embryos, we generated transgenic zebrafish using the fluorescent Ca2+ biosensor GCaMP6f. Live imaging identified dynamic cytoplasmic Ca2+ transients (“flux”) that occur unambiguously in DFCs. In addition, we report Ca2+ flux events that occur in the nucleus of DFCs. Nuclear Ca2+ flux occurred in DFCs that were about to undergo mitosis. We find that SERCA inhibitor treatments during DFC proliferation stages alters Ca2+ dynamics, reduces the number of ciliated cells in KV, and alters embryo laterality. Mechanistically, SERCA inhibitor treatments eliminated both cytoplasmic and nuclear Ca2+ flux events, and reduced progression of DFCs through the S/G2 phases of the cell cycle. These results identify SERCA-mediated Ca2+ signaling as a mitotic regulator of the precursor cells that give rise to the ciliated LRO.</p
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