9,300 research outputs found

    Wear and friction of TiAlN/VN coatings against Al2O3 in air at room and elevated temperatures

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    TiAlN/VN multilayer coatings exhibit excellent dry sliding wear resistance and low friction coefficient, reported to be associated with the formation of self-lubricating V2O5. To investigate this hypothesis, dry sliding ball-on-disc wear tests of TiAlN/VN coatings on flat stainless steel substrates were undertaken against Al2O3 at 25 C, 300 C and 635 C in air. The coating exhibited increased wear rate with temperature. The friction coefficient was 0.53 at 25 C, which increased to 1.03 at 300 C and decreased to 0.46 at 635 C. Detailed investigation of the worn surfaces was undertaken using site-specific transmission electron microscopy (TEM) via focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy, along with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. Microstructure and tribo-induced chemical reactions at these temperatures were correlated with the coating’s wear and friction behaviour. The friction behaviour at room temperature is attributed to the presence of a thin hydrated tribofilm and the presence of V2O5 at high temperature

    Microsolvation of Mg2+, Ca2+: Strong influence of formal charges in hydrogen bond networks

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    A stochastic exploration of the quantum conformational spaces in the microsolvation of divalent cations with explicit consideration of up to six solvent molecules [Mg (H 2 O) n )]2+, (n = 3, 4, 5, 6) at the B3LYP, MP2, CCSD(T) levels is presented. We find several cases in which the formal charge in Mg2+ causes dissociation of water molecules in the first solvation shell, leaving a hydroxide ion available to interact with the central cation, the released proton being transferred to outer solvation shells in a Grotthus type mechanism; this particular finding sheds light on the capacity of Mg2+ to promote formation of hydroxide anions, a process necessary to regulate proton transfer in enzymes with exonuclease activity. Two distinct types of hydrogen bonds, scattered over a wide range of distances (1.35–2.15 Å) were identified. We find that in inner solvation shells, where hydrogen bond networks are severely disturbed, most of the interaction energies come from electrostatic and polarization+charge transfer, while in outer solvation shells the situation approximates that of pure water clusters

    Effects of the inclusion of oat hulls or sugar beet pulp in the diet on gizzard characteristics, apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients, and microbial count in the ceca in 36 day old broilers reared on floor

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    The effects of the inclusion of oat hulls (OH) and sugar beet pulp (SBP) in the diet on gizzard characteristics, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility (AID), and Clostridium perfringens, Enterobacteriaceae, and Lactobacillus proliferation in the ceca were studied in 36 d?old broilers. There were a control diet with a low CF content (1.61%) and 2 additional diets that resulted from the dilution of this feed with 5% of either OH or SBP

    Construction of Empirical Care Pathways Process Models from Multiple Real-World Datasets

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    Care pathways (CPWs) are "multidisciplinary care plans that detail essential care steps for patients with specific clinical problems." While CPWs impact on health or cost outcomes is vastly studied, an in-depth analysis of the real-world implementation of the CPWs is an area that still remains underexplored. The present work describes how to apply an existing process mining methodology to construct the empirical CPW process models. These process models are a unique piece of information for health services research: for example to evaluate their conformance against the theoretical CPW described on clinical guidelines or to evaluate the impact of the process in health outcomes. To this purpose, this work relies on the design and implementation of a solution that a) synthesizes the expert knowledge on how health care is delivered within and across providers as an activity log, and b) constructs the CPW process model from that activity log using process mining techniques. Unlike previous research based on ad hoc data captures, current approach is built on the linkage of various heterogeneous real-world data (RWD) sets that share a minimum semantic linkage. RWD, defined as secondary use of routinely collected data as opposite to ad hoc data extractions, is a unique source of information for the CPW analysis due to its coverage of the caregiving activities and its wide availability. The viability of the solution is demonstrated by constructing the CPW process model of Code Stroke (Acute Stroke CPW) in the Aragon region (Spain)

    An X-ray study of the SNR G344.7-0.1 and the central object CXOU J170357.8-414302

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    Aims. We report results of an X-ray study of the supernova remnant (SNR) G344.7-0.1 and the point-like X-ray source located at the geometrical center of the SNR radio structure. Methods. The morphology and spectral properties of the remnant and the central X-ray point-like source were studied using data from the XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites. Archival radio data and infrared Spitzer observations at 8 and 24 ÎĽ\mum were used to compare and study its multi-band properties at different wavelengths. Results. The XMM-Newton and Chandra observations reveal that the overall X-ray emission of G344.7-0.1 is extended and correlates very well with regions of bright radio and infrared emission. The X-ray spectrum is dominated by prominent atomic emission lines. These characteristics suggest that the X-ray emission originated in a thin thermal plasma, whose radiation is represented well by a plane-parallel shock plasma model (PSHOCK). Our study favors the scenario in which G344.7-0.1 is a 6 x 10^3 year old SNR expanding in a medium with a high density gradient and is most likely encountering a molecular cloud on the western side. In addition, we report the discovery of a soft point-like X-ray source located at the geometrical center of the radio SNR structure. The object presents some characteristics of the so-called compact central objects (CCO). However, its neutral hydrogen absorption column (N_{H}) is inconsistent with that of the SNR. Coincident with the position of the source, we found infrared and optical objects with typical early-K star characteristics. The X-ray source may be a foreground star or the CCO associated with the SNR. If this latter possibility were confirmed, the point-like source would be the farthest CCO detected so far and the eighth member of the new population of isolated and weakly magnetized neutron stars.Comment: 9 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Higher resolution figures can be seen on A&

    X-ray Spectra of the RIXOS source sample

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    We present results of an extensive study of the X-ray spectral properties of sources detected in the RIXOS survey, that is nearly complete down to a flux limit of 3e-14 cgs (0.5-2 keV). We show that for X-ray surveys containing sources with low count rate spectral slopes estimated using simple hardness ratios in the ROSAT band can be biased. Instead we analyse three-colour X-ray data using statistical techniques appropriate to the Poisson regime which removes the effects of this bias. We have then applied this technique to the RIXOS survey to study the spectral properties of the sample. For the AGN we find an average energy index of 1.05+-0.05 with no evidence for spectral evolution with redshift. Individual AGN are shown to have a range of properties including soft X-ray excesses and intrinsic absorption. Narrow Emission Line Galaxies also seem to fit to a power-law spectrum, which may indicate a non-thermal origin for their X-ray emission. We infer that most of the clusters in the sample have a bremsstrahlung temperature >3 keV, although some show evidence for a cooling flow. The stars deviate strongly from a power-law model but fit to a thermal model. Finally, we have analysed the whole RIXOS sample containing 1762 sources. We find that the mean spectral slope of the sources hardens at lower fluxes in agreement with results from other samples. However, a study of the individual sources demonstrates that the hardening of the mean is caused by the appearance of a population of very hard sources at the lowest fluxes. This has implications for the nature of the soft X-ray background.Comment: 31,LaTeX file, 2 PS files with Table 2 and 22 PS figures. MNRAS in pres

    Evolution of trees and mycorrhizal fungi intensifies silicate mineral weathering.

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    Forested ecosystems diversified more than 350 Ma to become major engines of continental silicate weathering, regulating the Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by driving calcium export into ocean carbonates. Our field experiments with mature trees demonstrate intensification of this weathering engine as tree lineages diversified in concert with their symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi. Preferential hyphal colonization of the calcium silicate-bearing rock, basalt, progressively increased with advancement from arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) to later, independently evolved ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, and from gymnosperm to angiosperm hosts with both fungal groups. This led to 'trenching' of silicate mineral surfaces by AM and EM fungi, with EM gymnosperms and angiosperms releasing calcium from basalt at twice the rate of AM gymnosperms. Our findings indicate mycorrhiza-driven weathering may have originated hundreds of millions of years earlier than previously recognized and subsequently intensified with the evolution of trees and mycorrhizas to affect the Earth's long-term CO(2) and climate history
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