3,350 research outputs found

    Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L

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    Gonzalez, E (reprint author), Univ Talca, Inst Biol Vegetal & Biotecnol, Talca, Chile.Background: Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP) gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. Results: We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Conclusions: Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient may be relevant for reproductive development

    Advances in the study of coke formation over zeolite catalysts in the methanol-to-hydrocarbon process

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    Methanol-to-hydrocarbon (MTH) process over acidic zeolite catalysts has been widely utilised to yield many types of hydrocarbons, some of which are eventually converted into the highly dehydrogenated (graphitized) carbonaceous species (cokes). The coking process can be divided into two parallel pathways based on the accepted hydrocarbon pool theory. From extensive investigations, it is reasonable to conclude that inner zeollite cavity/channel reactions at acidic sites generate cokes. However, coke formation and accumulation over the zeolite external surfaces play a major role in reaction deactivation as they contribute a great portion to the total coke amount. Herein we have reviewed previous literatures and included some recent works from KOPRC in understanding the nature and mechanism of coke formation, particularly during an H-ZSM-5 catalysed MTH reaction. We specially conclude that rapid aromatics formation at the zeolite crystalite edges is the main reason for later stage coke accumulation on the zeolite external surfaces. Accordingly, the catalyst deactivation is in a great certain to arise at those edge areas due to having the earliest contact with the incoming methanol reactant. The final coke structure is therefore built up with layers of poly-aromatics, as the potential sp2 carbons leading to pre-graphite structure. We have proposed a coke formation model particularly for the acidic catalyst, which we believe will be of assistance in understanding—and hence minimising—the coke formation mechanisms

    Microwaves effectively examine the extent and type of coking over acid zeolite catalysts

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    Coking leads to the deactivation of solid acid catalyst. This phenomenon is a ubiquitous problem in the modern petrochemical and energy transformation industries. Here, we show a method based on microwave cavity perturbation analysis for an effective examination of both the amount and the chemical composition of cokes formed over acid zeolite catalysts. The employed microwave cavity can rapidly and non-intrusively measure the catalytically coked zeolites with sample full body penetration. The overall coke amount is reflected by the obtained dielectric loss (ε″) value, where different coke compositions lead to dramatically different absorption efficiencies (ε″/cokes’ wt%). The deeper-dehydrogenated coke compounds (e.g., polyaromatics) lead to an apparently higher ε″/wt% value thus can be effectively separated from lightly coked compounds. The measurement is based on the nature of coke formation during catalytic reactions, from saturated status (e.g., aliphatic) to graphitized status (e.g., polyaromatics), with more delocalized electrons obtained for enhanced Maxwell–Wagner polarization

    Wax: A benign hydrogen-storage material that rapidly releases H2-rich gases through microwave-assisted catalytic decomposition

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    Hydrogen is often described as the fuel of the future, especially for application in hydrogen powered fuel-cell vehicles (HFCV’s). However, its widespread implementation in this role has been thwarted by the lack of a lightweight, safe, on-board hydrogen storage material. Here we show that benign, readily-available hydrocarbon wax is capable of rapidly releasing large amounts of hydrogen through microwave-assisted catalytic decomposition. This discovery offers a new material and system for safe and efficient hydrogen storage and could facilitate its application in a HFCV. Importantly, hydrogen storage materials made of wax can be manufactured through completely sustainable processes utilizing biomass or other renewable feedstocks

    Next-to-leading order Q^2-evolution of the transversity distribution h_1(x, Q^2)

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    We present a calculation of the two-loop anomalous dimension for the transversity distribution h_1(x,Q^2), Îłnh(1)\gamma^{h(1)}_n, in the MS scheme of the dimensional regularization. Due to the chiral-odd nature, h_1 does not mix with the gluon distributions, and thus our result is the same for the flavor-singlet and nonsinglet distributions. At small n (moment of h_1), Îłnh(1)\gamma^{h(1)}_n is significantly larger than Îłnf(1)\gamma^{f(1)}_n (the anomalous dimension for the nonsinglet f_1), but approaches Îłnf(1)\gamma^{f(1)}_n very quickly at large n, keeping the relation Îłnh(1)>Îłnf(1)\gamma^{h(1)}_n > \gamma^{f(1)}_n. This feature is in parallel to the relation between the one-loop anomalous dimension for f_1 and h_1.Comment: 28 pages, Latex. 10 figures. Submitted for publication some time ag

    Transcription of toll-like receptors 2, 3, 4 and 9, FoxP3 and Th17 cytokines in a susceptible experimental model of canine Leishmania infantum infection

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    Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum is a chronic zoonotic systemic disease resulting from complex interactions between protozoa and the canine immune system. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential components of the innate immune system and facilitate the early detection of many infections. However, the role of TLRs in CanL remains unknown and information describing TLR transcription during infection is extremely scarce. The aim of this research project was to investigate the impact of L. infantum infection on canine TLR transcription using a susceptible model. The objectives of this study were to evaluate transcription of TLRs 2, 3, 4 and 9 by means of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in skin, spleen, lymph node and liver in the presence or absence of experimental L. infantum infection in Beagle dogs. These findings were compared with clinical and serological data, parasite densities in infected tissues and transcription of IL-17, IL-22 and FoxP3 in different tissues in non-infected dogs (n = 10), and at six months (n = 24) and 15 months (n = 7) post infection. Results revealed significant down regulation of transcription with disease progression in lymph node samples for TLR3, TLR4, TLR9, IL-17, IL-22 and FoxP3. In spleen samples, significant down regulation of transcription was seen in TLR4 and IL-22 when both infected groups were compared with controls. In liver samples, down regulation of transcription was evident with disease progression for IL-22. In the skin, upregulation was seen only for TLR9 and FoxP3 in the early stages of infection. Subtle changes or down regulation in TLR transcription, Th17 cytokines and FoxP3 are indicative of the silent establishment of infection that Leishmania is renowned for. These observations provide new insights about TLR transcription, Th17 cytokines and Foxp3 in the liver, spleen, lymph node and skin in CanL and highlight possible markers of disease susceptibility in this model

    Anyon in External Electromagnetic Field: Hamiltonian and Lagrangian Formulations

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    We propose a simple model for a free relativistic particle of fractional spin in 2+1 dimensions which satisfies all the necessary conditions. The canonical quantization of the system leads to the description of one- particle states of the Poincare group with arbitrary spin. Using the Hamil- tonian formulation with the set of constraints, we introduce the electro- magnetic interaction of a charged anyon and obtain the Lagrangian. The Casimir operator of the extended algebra, which is the first-class constraint, is obtained and gives the equation of motion of the anyon. In particular, from the latter it follows that the gyromagnetic ratio for a charged anyon is two due to the parallelness of spin and momentum of the particle in 2+1 dimensions. The canonical quantization is also considered in this case.Comment: 9 pages, Latex, HU-SEFT R 1993-1

    ALMA Observations of Asteroid 3 Juno at 60 Kilometer Resolution

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    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 1.3 mm continuum images of the asteroid 3 Juno obtained with an angular resolution of 0.042 arcseconds (60 km at 1.97 AU). The data were obtained over a single 4.4 hr interval, which covers 60% of the 7.2 hr rotation period, approximately centered on local transit. A sequence of ten consecutive images reveals continuous changes in the asteroid's profile and apparent shape, in good agreement with the sky projection of the three-dimensional model of the Database of Asteroid Models from Inversion Techniques. We measure a geometric mean diameter of 259pm4 km, in good agreement with past estimates from a variety of techniques and wavelengths. Due to the viewing angle and inclination of the rotational pole, the southern hemisphere dominates all of the images. The median peak brightness temperature is 215pm13 K, while the median over the whole surface is 197pm15 K. With the unprecedented resolution of ALMA, we find that the brightness temperature varies across the surface with higher values correlated to the subsolar point and afternoon areas, and lower values beyond the evening terminator. The dominance of the subsolar point is accentuated in the final four images, suggesting a reduction in the thermal inertia of the regolith at the corresponding longitudes, which are possibly correlated to the location of the putative large impact crater. These results demonstrate ALMA's potential to resolve thermal emission from the surface of main belt asteroids, and to measure accurately their position, geometric shape, rotational period, and soil characteristics.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figures, 2 tables, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letter

    Proteomics: in pursuit of effective traumatic brain injury therapeutics

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    Effective traumatic brain injury (TBI) therapeutics remain stubbornly elusive. Efforts in the field have been challenged by the heterogeneity of clinical TBI, with greater complexity among underlying molecular phenotypes than initially conceived. Future research must confront the multitude of factors comprising this heterogeneity, representing a big data challenge befitting the coming informatics age. Proteomics is poised to serve a central role in prescriptive therapeutic development, as it offers an efficient endpoint within which to assess post-TBI biochemistry. We examine rationale for multifactor TBI proteomic studies and the particular importance of temporal profiling in defining biochemical sequences and guiding therapeutic development. Lastly, we offer perspective on repurposing biofluid proteomics to develop theragnostic assays with which to prescribe, monitor and assess pharmaceutics for improved translation and outcome for TBI patients

    ALMA Long Baseline Observations of the Strongly Lensed Submillimeter Galaxy HATLAS J090311.6+003906 at z=3.042

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    We present initial results of very high resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the zz=3.042 gravitationally lensed galaxy HATLAS J090311.6+003906 (SDP.81). These observations were carried out using a very extended configuration as part of Science Verification for the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign, with baselines of up to 15 km. We present continuum imaging at 151, 236 and 290 GHz, at unprecedented angular resolutions as fine as 23 milliarcseconds (mas), corresponding to an un-magnified spatial scale of ~180 pc at z=3.042. The ALMA images clearly show two main gravitational arc components of an Einstein ring, with emission tracing a radius of ~1.5". We also present imaging of CO(10-9), CO(8-7), CO(5-4) and H2O line emission. The CO emission, at an angular resolution of ~170 mas, is found to broadly trace the gravitational arc structures but with differing morphologies between the CO transitions and compared to the dust continuum. Our detection of H2O line emission, using only the shortest baselines, provides the most resolved detection to date of thermal H2O emission in an extragalactic source. The ALMA continuum and spectral line fluxes are consistent with previous Plateau de Bure Interferometer and Submillimeter Array observations despite the impressive increase in angular resolution. Finally, we detect weak unresolved continuum emission from a position that is spatially coincident with the center of the lens, with a spectral index that is consistent with emission from the core of the foreground lensing galaxy.Comment: 9 pages, 5 figures and 3 tables, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letter
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