11,767 research outputs found

    A near-IR line of Mn I as a diagnostic tool of the average magnetic energy in the solar photosphere

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    We report on spectropolarimetric observations of a near-IR line of Mn I located at 15262.702 A whose intensity and polarization profiles are very sensitive to the presence of hyperfine structure. A theoretical investigation of the magnetic sensitivity of this line to the magnetic field uncovers several interesting properties. The most important one is that the presence of strong Paschen-Back perturbations due to the hyperfine structure produces an intensity line profile whose shape changes according to the absolute value of the magnetic field strength. A line ratio technique is developed from the intrinsic variations of the line profile. This line ratio technique is applied to spectropolarimetric observations of the quiet solar photosphere in order to explore the probability distribution function of the magnetic field strength. Particular attention is given to the quietest area of the observed field of view, which was encircled by an enhanced network region. A detailed theoretical investigation shows that the inferred distribution yields information on the average magnetic field strength and the spatial scale at which the magnetic field is organized. A first estimation gives ~250 G for the mean field strength and a tentative value of ~0.45" for the spatial scale at which the observed magnetic field is horizontally organized.Comment: 42 pages, 17 figures, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal. Figures 1 and 9 are in JPG forma

    Tuning the electronic and magnetic properties of 2D g-GaN by H adsorption: An ab-initio study

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    We have theoretically studied the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of the hydrogen adsorption on a honeycomb gallium-nitride two-dimensional monolayer (2D g-GaN). Results indicate that the band gap energy can be systematically tuned by the hydrogen coverage on the 2D g-GaN in the diluted limit. In addition, a total magnetic moment can be induced in the 2D g-GaN by hydrogen adsorption due to s-p interaction and band structure effects. Although hydrogen adsorption on top of nitrogen atoms shows the most stable energy in the 2D g-GaN, the most stable ferromagnetism -with a nonzero magnetic moment-is obtained when hydrogen is adsorbed on top of Ga atoms. These results indicate that H adatoms on the 2D g-GaN systems could be a potential candidate for future spintronic applications

    A Biomathematical Model of Tumor Response to Radioimmunotherapy with PDL1 and CTLA4

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    There is evidence of synergy between radiotherapy and immunotherapy. Radiotherapy can increase liberation of tumor antigens, causing activation of antitumor T-cells. This effect can be boosted with immunotherapy. Radioimmunotherapy has potential to increase tumor control rates. Biomathematical models of response to radioimmunotherapy may help on understanding of the mechanisms affecting response, and assist clinicians on the design of optimal treatment strategies. In this work we present a biomathematical model of tumor response to radioimmunotherapy. The model uses the linear-quadratic response of tumor cells to radiation (or variation of it), and builds on previous developments to include the radiation-induced immune effect. We have focused this study on the combined effect of radiotherapy and PDL1/CTLA4 therapies. The model can fit preclinical data of volume dynamics and control obtained with different dose fractionations and PDL1/CTLA4. A biomathematical study of optimal combination strategies suggests that a good understanding of the involved biological delays, the biokinetics of the immunotherapy drug, and the interplay between them, may be of paramount importance to design optimal radioimmunotherapy schedules. Biomathematical models like the one we present can help to interpret experimental data on the synergy between radiotherapy and immunotherapy, and to assist in the design of more effective treatments

    A GEANT4 Study of a Gamma-ray Collimation Array

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    Proton beam therapy uses high-energy protons to destroy cancer cells which are still uncertain about where in the body they hit. A possible way to answer this question is to detect the gamma rays produced during the irradiation and determine where in the body they are produced. This work investigates the use of collimators to determine where the proton interactions occur. GEANT4 is used to simulate the gamma production of a source interacting with a collimator. Each event simulates a number of gammas obtained as a function of the position along the detector. Repeating for different collimator configurations can thus help determine the best characteristics of a detector device

    Analysis of DDM into Gamma Radiation

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    We are interested in the purpose of a dipolar fermionic particle as a viable candidate of Dark Matter (DDM). Then, we study the annihilation of dark matter into photons, considering it as a neutral particle with non-vanishing magnetic (M) and electric (D) dipolar moments. The total annihilation cross section σ(χ → γ) is computed by starting from a general form of coupling χγ in a framework beyond to Standard Model (BSM). We found that candidates with O(mχ )∽102GeV, D≈10−16 e cm are required in order to satisfy the current cosmic relic density

    Constant probe orientation for fast contact-based inspection of 3D free-form surfaces using (3+2)-axis inspection machines

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    A new probe optimization method for contact based (3+2)-axis inspection machines is proposed. Given an inspection path of a stylus on a free-form surface, an optimal orientation of the stylus is computed such that (i) the inclination angle of the stylus is within a given angular range with respect to the surface normal, (ii) the motion of the stylus is globally collision free, and (iii) the stylus remains constant in the coordinate system of the measuring machine. The last condition guarantees that the inspection motion requires only the involvement of the three translational axes of the measuring machine. The numerical simulations were validated through physical experiments on a testcase of a tooth of a bevel gear due to the surface complexity and probe accessibility. This optimized method was compared to 3-axis and 5-axis inspection strategies, showing that the fixed (3+2)-axis stylus returns more accurate inspection results compared to the traditional 3-axis approach and similar to 5-axis approach.RYC-2017-2264

    Mid-infrared imaging- and spectro-polarimetric subarcsecond observations of NGC 1068

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    We present sub-arcsecond 7.5−-13 μ\mum imaging- and spectro-polarimetric observations of NGC 1068 using CanariCam on the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS. At all wavelengths, we find: (1) A 90 ×\times 60 pc extended polarized feature in the northern ionization cone, with a uniform ∼\sim44∘^{\circ} polarization angle. Its polarization arises from dust and gas emission in the ionization cone, heated by the active nucleus and jet, and further extinguished by aligned dust grains in the host galaxy. The polarization spectrum of the jet-molecular cloud interaction at ∼\sim24 pc from the core is highly polarized, and does not show a silicate feature, suggesting that the dust grains are different from those in the interstellar medium. (2) A southern polarized feature at ∼\sim9.6 pc from the core. Its polarization arises from a dust emission component extinguished by a large concentration of dust in the galaxy disc. We cannot distinguish between dust emission from magnetically aligned dust grains directly heated by the jet close to the core, and aligned dust grains in the dusty obscuring material surrounding the central engine. Silicate-like grains reproduce the polarized dust emission in this feature, suggesting different dust compositions in both ionization cones. (3) An upper limit of polarization degree of 0.3 per cent in the core. Based on our polarization model, the expected polarization of the obscuring dusty material is ≲\lesssim0.1 per cent in the 8−-13 μ\mum wavelength range. This low polarization may be arising from the passage of radiation through aligned dust grains in the shielded edges of the clumps.Comment: 17 pages, 10 figures, accepted for publication at MNRA

    Fiber Optic Sensing System for Temperature and Gas Monitoring in Coal Waste Pile Combustion Environments

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    International audienceIt is presented an optical fiber sensing system projected to operate in the demanding conditions associated with coal waste piles in combustion. Distributed temperature measurement and spot gas sensing are requirements for such a system. A field prototype has been installed and is continuously gathering data, which will input a geological model of the coal waste piles in combustion aiming to understand their dynamics and evolution. Results are presented on distributed temperature and ammonia measurement, being noticed any significant methane emission in the short time period considered. Carbon dioxide is also a targeted gas for measurement, with validated results available soon. The assessment of this technology as an effective and reliable tool to address the problem of monitoring coal waste piles in combustion opens the possibility of its widespread application in view of the worldwide presence of coal related fires
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