1,369 research outputs found

    The silicate model and carbon rich model of CoRoT-7b, Kepler-9d and Kepler-10b

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    Possible bulk compositions of the super-Earth exoplanets, CoRoT-7b, Kepler-9d, and Kepler-10b are investigated by applying a commonly used silicate and a non-standard carbon model. Their internal structures are deduced using the suitable equation of state of the materials. The degeneracy problems of their compositions can be partly overcome, based on the fact that all three planets are extremely close to their host stars. By analyzing the numerical results, we conclude: 1) The iron core of CoRoT-7b is not more than 27% of its total mass within 1 σ\sigma mass-radius error bars, so an Earth-like composition is less likely, but its carbon rich model can be compatible with an Earth-like core/mantle mass fraction; 2) Kepler-10b is more likely with a Mercury-like composition, its old age implies that its high iron content may be a result of strong solar wind or giant impact; 3) the transiting-only super-Earth Kepler-9d is also discussed. Combining its possible composition with the formation theory, we can place some constraints on its mass and bulk composition.Comment: 20 pages, 8figures, accepted for publication in RAA. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:0707.289

    Secular dynamics of stellar spin driven by planets inside Kozai-Lidov resonance

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    In many exoplanetary systems with `hot Jupiters', it is observed that the spin axes of host stars are highly misaligned to planetary orbital axes. In this study, a possible channel is investigated for producing such a misalignment under a hierarchical three-body system where the evolution of stellar spin is subjected to the gravitational torque induced from the planet inside Kozai--Lidov (KL) resonance. In particular, two special configurations are explored in detail. The first one corresponds to the configuration with planets at KL fixed points, and the second one corresponds to the configurations with planets moving on KL librating cycles. When the planet is located at the KL fixed point, the corresponding Hamiltonian model is of one degree of freedom and there are three branches of libration centres for stellar spin. When the planet is moving on KL cycles, the technique of Poincar\'e section is taken to reveal global structures of stellar spin in phase space. To understand the complex structures, perturbative treatments are adopted to study rotational dynamics. It shows that analytical structures in phase portraits under the resonant model can agree well with numerical structures arising in Poincar\'e sections, showing that the complicated dynamics of stellar spin are governed by the primary resonance under the unperturbed Hamiltonian model in combination with the 2:1 (high-order and/or secondary) spin-orbit resonances.Comment: 15 pages, 11 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRA

    The Pseudoscalar Meson and Heavy Vector Meson Scattering Lengths

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    We have systematically studied the S-wave pseudoscalar meson and heavy vector meson scattering lengths to the third order with the chiral perturbation theory, which will be helpful to reveal their strong interaction. For comparison, we have presented the numerical results of the scattering lengths (1) in the framework of the heavy meson chiral perturbation theory and (2) in the framework of the infrared regularization. The chiral expansion converges well in some channels.Comment: 10 pages, 1 figures, 4 tables. Corrected typos, Improved numerical results, and More dicussions. Accepted for publication by Phys.Rev.

    Making hot Jupiters in stellar clusters II: efficient formation in binary systems

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    Observations suggested that the occurrence rate of hot Jupiters (HJs) in open clusters is largely consistent with the field (1%\sim1\%) but in the binary-rich cluster M67, the rate is 5%\sim5\%. How does the cluster environment boost HJ formation via the high-eccentricity tidal migration initiated by the extreme-amplitude von Zeipel-Lidov-Kozai (XZKL) mechanism forced by a companion star? Our analytical treatment shows that the cluster's collective gravitational potential alters the companion's orbit slowly, which may render the star-planet-companion configuration XZKL-favourable, a phenomenon only possible for very wide binaries. We have also performed direct Gyr NN-body simulations of the star cluster evolution and XZKL of planets' orbit around member stars. We find that an initially-single star may acquire a companion star via stellar scattering and the companion may enable XZKL in the planets' orbit. Planets around an initially-binary star may also be XZKL-activated by the companion. In both scenarios, the companion's orbit has likely been significantly changed by star scattering and the cluster potential before XZKL occurs in the planets' orbits. Across different cluster models, 0.8\%-3\% of the planets orbiting initially-single stars have experienced XZKL while the fraction is 2\%-26\% for initially-binary stars. Notably, the ejection fraction is similar to or appreciably smaller than XZKL. Around a star that is binary at 1 Gyr, 13\%-32\% of its planets have undergone XZKL, and combined with single stars, the overall XZKL fraction is 3\%-21\%, most affected by the cluster binarity. If 10\% of the stars in M67 host a giant planet, our model predicts an HJ occurrence rate of 1%\sim1\%. We suggest that HJ surveys target old, high-binarity, not-too-dense open clusters and prioritise wide binaries to maximise HJ yield.Comment: 12 figures, 2 tables, submitted to MNRA