3,839 research outputs found

    Problems in theory of measurement today

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    This is a reissue of a paper which appeared in ACTA IMEKO 1979, Proceedings of the 8th IMEKO Congress of the International Measurement Confederation, "Measurement for progress in science and technology", 21.-27.5.1979, Moscow, vol. 1, pp. 103-110.The main questions to be answered in the theory of measurement are presented, and their formulation analysed in the classical approach and in a new operative one: the scope and aims of the theory itself, the concepts of measurable quantity, measurement results, error, uncertainty, the role of time. The paper is meant to define problems as the first step toward their solution.</p

    The mosaic leafhopper Orientus ishidae: host plants, spatial distribution, infectivity, and transmission of 16SrV phytoplasmas to vines

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    Orientus ishidae (Matsumura) is an Asian species introduced into Europe and recently associated with 16SrV phytoplasmas, related to grapevine “flavescence dorée”. Its life cycle, host plants, spatial distribution, infection and vector capability have been investigated in vine-growing areas of Piedmont, NW Italy. The spatial distribution of adults in vineyards was studied by applying interpolation methods to trap capture data. Insects were subject to molecular analyses to verify phytoplasma presence and identity. DNA extraction and PCR were made to detect 16SrV phytoplasmas. Transmission experiments were set up, using different sources for phytoplasma acquisition, and two plant species and an artificial diet for inoculation. Whole mount in situ hybridization was made to detect phytoplasmas in the salivary glands of adults. In the vineyard agro-ecosystem, 19 plant species (11 families), mainly broadleaf trees and shrubs, were recognized as host plants of the insect. Adults were more abundant on putative host plants than on grapevines, with a clear clustering at the edges of vineyards, and without a massive intrusion into the vineyard from outside. 16SrV phytoplasmas were detected only in adults captured with yellow sticky traps (20 out of 188 tested). The transmission of 16SrV phytoplasmas was successful after phytoplasma acquisition from infected broad bean and inoculation on grapevine

    CMHC Adherence to National Mental Health Plan Standards in Italy: A Survey 30 Years After National Reform Law

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    none6OBJECTIVE: The PROG-CSM (Progetto Centri di Salute Mentale) survey was conducted in all Italian community mental health centers (CMHCs) with the aim of evaluating the extent to which these services adhered to the standards defined by the Italian National Mental Health Plan 1998-2000. METHODS: The policy recommendations of the Italian National Mental Health Plan were translated by a multidisciplinary group of experts into key indicators, including continuity of care, coordination with other community-based services, accessibility, implementation of specific programs, and provision of care. RESULTS: There was high adherence to the standards of the National Mental Health Plan in continuity of care and coordination with other services, but there were lower levels of accessibility and implementation of specific projects. CONCLUSIONS: CMHCs were sufficiently developed throughout Italy, and continuity of care and service coordination levels were satisfactory; however, adherence to the standards was unrelated to the duration of activity of the CMHCs.noneMunizza C.; Gonella R.; Pinciaroli L.; Rucci P.; Picci RL.; Tibaldi G.Munizza C.; Gonella R.; Pinciaroli L.; Rucci P.; Picci RL.; Tibaldi G

    Applying and validating the PTVA-3 Model at the Aeolian Islands, Italy: assessment of the vulnerability of buildings to tsunamis

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    The volcanic archipelago of the Aeolian Islands (Sicily, Italy) is included on the UNESCO World Heritage list and is visited by more than 200 000 tourists per year. Due to its geological characteristics, the risk related to volcanic and seismic activity is particularly high. Since 1916 the archipelago has been hit by eight local tsunamis. The most recent and intense of these events happened on 30 December 2002. It was triggered by two successive landslides along the north-western side of the Stromboli volcano (Sciara del Fuoco), which poured approximately 2–3&amp;times;10&lt;sup&gt;7&lt;/sup&gt; m&lt;sup&gt;3&lt;/sup&gt; of rocks and debris into the Tyrrhenian Sea. The waves impacted across the whole archipelago, but most of the damage to buildings and infrastructures occurred on the islands of Stromboli (maximum run-up 11 m) and Panarea. &lt;br&gt;&lt;br&gt; The aim of this study is to assess the vulnerability of buildings to damage from tsunamis located within the same area inundated by the 2002 event. The assessment is carried out by using the PTVA-3 Model (Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment, version 3). The PTVA-3 Model calculates a Relative Vulnerability Index (RVI) for every building, based on a set of selected physical and structural attributes. Run-up values within the area inundated by the 2002 tsunami were measured and mapped by the Istituto Italiano di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and the University of Bologna during field surveys in January 2003. Results of the assessment show that if the same tsunami were to occur today, 54 buildings would be affected in Stromboli, and 5 in Panarea. The overall vulnerability level obtained in this analysis for Stromboli and Panarea are "average"/"low" and "very low", respectively. Nonetheless, 14 buildings in Stromboli are classified as having a "high" or "average" vulnerability. For some buildings, we were able to validate the RVI scores calculated by the PTVA-3 Model through a qualitative comparison with photographs taken by INGV and the University of Bologna during the post-tsunami survey. With the exception of a single structure, which is partially covered by a coastal dune on the seaward side, we found a good degree of accuracy between the PTVA-3 Model forecast assessments and the actual degree of damage experienced by buildings. This validation of the model increases our confidence in its predictive capability. Given the high tsunami risk for the archipelago, our results provide a framework for prioritising investments in prevention measures and addressing the most relevant vulnerability issues of the built environment, particularly on the island of Stromboli

    Surfactant-like Effect and Dissolution of Ultrathin Fe Films on Ag(001)

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    The phase immiscibility and the excellent matching between Ag(001) and Fe(001) unit cells (mismatch 0.8 %) make Fe/Ag growth attractive in the field of low dimensionality magnetic systems. Intermixing could be drastically limited at deposition temperatures as low as 140-150 K. The film structural evolution induced by post-growth annealing presents many interesting aspects involving activated atomic exchange processes and affecting magnetic properties. Previous experiments, of He and low energy ion scattering on films deposited at 150 K, indicated the formation of a segregated Ag layer upon annealing at 550 K. Higher temperatures led to the embedding of Fe into the Ag matrix. In those experiments, information on sub-surface layers was attained by techniques mainly sensitive to the topmost layer. Here, systematic PED measurements, providing chemical selectivity and structural information for a depth of several layers, have been accompanied with a few XRD rod scans, yielding a better sensitivity to the buried interface and to the film long range order. The results of this paper allow a comparison with recent models enlightening the dissolution paths of an ultra thin metal film into a different metal, when both subsurface migration of the deposit and phase separation between substrate and deposit are favoured. The occurrence of a surfactant-like stage, in which a single layer of Ag covers the Fe film is demonstrated for films of 4-6 ML heated at 500-550 K. Evidence of a stage characterized by the formation of two Ag capping layers is also reported. As the annealing temperature was increased beyond 700 K, the surface layers closely resembled the structure of bare Ag(001) with the residual presence of subsurface Fe aggregates.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

    Controlled Anisotropic Deformation of Ag Nanoparticles by Si Ion Irradiation

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    The shape and alignment of silver nanoparticles embedded in a glass matrix is controlled using silicon ion irradiation. Symmetric silver nanoparticles are transformed into anisotropic particles whose larger axis is along the ion beam. Upon irradiation, the surface plasmon resonance of symmetric particles splits into two resonances whose separation depends on the fluence of the ion irradiation. Simulations of the optical absorbance show that the anisotropy is caused by the deformation and alignment of the nanoparticles, and that both properties are controlled with the irradiation fluence.Comment: Submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. (October 14, 2005
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