29 research outputs found

    Magnetoelastic nature of solid oxygen epsilon-phase structure

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    For a long time a crystal structure of high-pressure epsilon-phase of solid oxygen was a mistery. Basing on the results of recent experiments that have solved this riddle we show that the magnetic and crystal structure of epsilon-phase can be explained by strong exchange interactions of antiferromagnetic nature. The singlet state implemented on quaters of O2 molecules has the minimal exchange energy if compared to other possible singlet states (dimers, trimers). Magnetoelastic forces that arise from the spatial dependence of the exchange integral give rise to transformation of 4(O2) rhombuses into the almost regular quadrates. Antiferromagnetic character of the exchange interactions stabilizes distortion of crystal lattice in epsilon-phase and impedes such a distortion in long-range alpha- and delta-phases.Comment: 11 pages, 4 figures, Changes: corrected typos, reference to the recent paper is adde

    High antiferromagnetic domain wall velocity induced by NĂ©el spin-orbit torques

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    We demonstrate the possibility to drive an antiferromagnetic domain wall at high velocities by fieldlike Néel spin-orbit torques. Such torques arise from current-induced local fields that alternate their orientation on each sublattice of the antiferromagnet and whose orientation depends primarily on the current direction, giving them their fieldlike character. The domain wall velocities that can be achieved by this mechanism are 2 orders of magnitude greater than the ones in ferromagnets. This arises from the efficiency of the staggered spin-orbit fields to couple to the order parameter and from the exchange-enhanced phenomena in antiferromagnetic texture dynamics, which leads to a low domain wall effective mass and the absence of a Walker breakdown limit. In addition, because of its nature, the staggered spin-orbit field can lift the degeneracy between two 180° rotated states in a collinear antiferromagnet, and it provides a force that can move such walls and control the switching of the states

    Laser-driven quantum magnonics and THz dynamics of the order parameter in antiferromagnets

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    The impulsive generation of two-magnon modes in antiferromagnets by femtosecond optical pulses, so-called femto-nanomagnons, leads to coherent longitudinal oscillations of the antiferromagnetic order parameter that cannot be described by a thermodynamic Landau-Lifshitz approach. We argue that this dynamics is triggered as a result of a laser-induced modification of the exchange interaction. In order to describe the oscillations we have formulated a quantum mechanical description in terms of magnon pair operators and coherent states. Such an approach allowed us to} derive an effective macroscopic equation of motion for the temporal evolution of the antiferromagnetic order parameter. An implication of the latter is that the photo-induced spin dynamics represents a macroscopic entanglement of pairs of magnons with femtosecond period and nanometer wavelength. By performing magneto-optical pump-probe experiments with 10 femtosecond resolution in the cubic KNiF3_3 and the uniaxial K2_2NiF4_4 collinear Heisenberg antiferromagnets, we observed coherent oscillations at the frequency of 22 THz and 16 THz, respectively. The detected frequencies as a function of the temperature ideally fit the two-magnon excitation up to the N\'eel point. The experimental signals are described as dynamics of magnetic linear dichroism due to longitudinal oscillations of the antiferromagnetic vector.Comment: 25 pages, 10 figure

    Evidence of non-degenerated, non-reciprocal and ultra-fast spin-waves in the canted antiferromagnet {\alpha}-Fe2O3

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    Spin-waves in antiferromagnets hold the prospects for the development of faster, less power-hungry electronics, as well as new physics based on spin-superfluids and coherent magnon-condensates. For both these perspectives, addressing electrically coherent antiferromagnetic spin-waves is of importance, a prerequisite that has so far been elusive, because unlike ferromagnets, antiferromagnets couple weakly to radiofrequency fields. Here, we demonstrate the electrical detection of ultra-fast non-reciprocal spin-waves in the dipolar-exchange regime of a canted antiferromagnet. Using time-of-flight spin-wave spectroscopy on hematite (alpha-Fe2O3), we find that the magnon wave packets can propagate as fast as 30 km/s for reciprocal bulk spin-wave modes and up to 10 km/s for surface-spin waves propagating parallel to the antiferromagnetic N\'eel vector. The electrical detection of coherent non-reciprocal antiferromagnetic spin waves holds makes hematite a versatile platform where most of the magnonic concepts developed for ferromagnet can be adapted paving the way for the development antiferromagnetic and altermagnet-based magnonic devices

    Antiferromagnet-mediated interlayer exchange: hybridization versus proximity effect

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    We investigate the interlayer coupling between two thin ferromagnetic (F) films mediated by an antiferromagnetic (AF) spacer in F*/AF/F trilayers and show how it transitions between different regimes on changing the AF thickness. Employing layer-selective Kerr magnetometry and ferromagnetic-resonance techniques in a complementary manner enables us to distinguish between three functionally distinct regimes of such ferromagnetic interlayer coupling. The F layers are found to be individually and independently exchange-biased for thick FeMn spacers - the first regime of no interlayer F-F* coupling. F-F* coupling appears on decreasing the FeMn thickness below 9 nm. In this second regime found in structures with 6.0-9.0 nm thick FeMn spacers, the interlayer coupling exists only in a finite temperature interval just below the effective N\'eel temperature of the spacer, which is due to magnon-mediated exchange through the thermally softened antiferromagnetic spacer, vanishing at lower temperatures. The third regime, with FeMn thinner than 4 nm, is characterized by a much stronger interlayer coupling in the entire temperature interval, which is attributed to a magnetic-proximity induced ferromagnetic exchange. These experimental results, spanning the key geometrical parameters and thermal regimes of the F*/AF/F nanostructure, complemented by a comprehensive theoretical analysis, should broaden the understanding of the interlayer exchange in magnetic multilayers and potentially be useful for applications in spin-thermionics.Comment: 14 pages, 9 figure

    Peculiarities of the stochastic motion in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

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    Antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials are widely used in spintronic devices as passive elements (for stabilization of ferromangetic layers) and as active elements (for information coding). In both cases switching between the different AFM states depends in a great extent from the environmental noise. In the present paper we derive the stochastic Langevin equations for an AFM vector and corresponding Fokker-Planck equation for distribution function in the phase space of generalised coordinate and momentum. Thermal noise is modeled by a random delta-correlated magnetic field that interacts with the dynamic magnetisation of AFM particle. We analyse in details a particular case of the collinear compensated AFM in the presence of spin-polarised current. The energy distribution function for normal modes in the vicinity of two equilibrium states (static and stationary) in sub- and super-critical regimes is found. It is shown that the noise-induced dynamics of AFM vector has pecuilarities compared to that of magnetisation vector in ferromagnets.Comment: Submitted to EPJ ST, presented at the 4-th Conference on Statistical Physics, Lviv, Ukraine, 201

    Antiferromagnetic spintronics

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    Antiferromagnetic materials are magnetic inside, however, the direction of their ordered microscopic moments alternates between individual atomic sites. The resulting zero net magnetic moment makes magnetism in antiferromagnets invisible on the outside. It also implies that if information was stored in antiferromagnetic moments it would be insensitive to disturbing external magnetic fields, and the antiferromagnetic element would not affect magnetically its neighbors no matter how densely the elements were arranged in a device. The intrinsic high frequencies of antiferromagnetic dynamics represent another property that makes antiferromagnets distinct from ferromagnets. The outstanding question is how to efficiently manipulate and detect the magnetic state of an antiferromagnet. In this article we give an overview of recent works addressing this question. We also review studies looking at merits of antiferromagnetic spintronics from a more general perspective of spin-ransport, magnetization dynamics, and materials research, and give a brief outlook of future research and applications of antiferromagnetic spintronics.Comment: 13 pages, 7 figure

    Spin transport and spin torque in antiferromagnetic devices

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    Ferromagnets are key materials for sensing and memory applications. In contrast, antiferromagnets which represent the more common form of magnetically ordered materials, have found less practical application beyond their use for establishing reference magnetic orientations via exchange bias. This might change in the future due to the recent progress in materials research and discoveries of antiferromagnetic spintronic phenomena suitable for device applications. Experimental demonstration of the electrical switching and detection of the NĂ©el order open a route towards memory devices based on antiferromagnets. Apart from the radiation and magnetic-field hardness, memory cells fabricated from antiferromagnets can be inherently multilevel, which could be used for neuromorphic computing. Switching speeds attainable in antiferromagnets far exceed those of ferromagnetic and semiconductor memory technologies. Here we review the recent progress in electronic spin-transport and spin-torque phenomena in antiferromagnets that are dominantly of the relativistic quantum mechanical origin. We discuss their utility in pure antiferromagnetic or hybrid ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic memory devices
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