20 research outputs found

    The roles of immune cells in bone healing; what we know, do not know and future perspectives

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    Key events occurring during the bone healing include well-orchestrated and complex interactions between immune cells, multipotential stromal cells (MSCs), osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Through three overlapping phases of this physiological process, innate and adaptive immune cells, cytokines and chemokines have a significant role to play. The aim of the escalating immune response is to achieve an osseous healing in the shortest time and with the least complications facilitating the restoration of function. The uninterrupted progression of these biological events in conjunction with a favourable mechanical environment (stable fracture fixation) remains the hallmark of successful fracture healing. When failure occurs, either the biological environment or the mechanical one could have been disrupted. Not infrequently both may be compromised. Consequently, regenerative treatments involving the use of bone autograft, allograft or synthetic matrices supplemented with MSCs are increasingly used. A better understanding of the bone biology and osteoimmunology can help to improve these evolving cell-therapy based strategies. Herein, an up to date status of the role of immune cells during the different phases of bone healing is presented. Additionally, the known and yet to know events about immune cell interactions with MSCs and osteoblasts and osteoclasts and the therapeutic implications are being discussed

    Actualidad y prospectiva de la investigación científica en el Centro Universitario Amecameca de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México

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    Con responsabilidad, se organiz√≥ un programa cuya finalidad fuera publicitar con transparencia dichos avances, a trav√©s de un esfuerzo de rendici√≥n de cuentas a la comunidad inmediata, la universitaria, y a la comunidad abierta, la sociedad que la principal referencia para tal efecto. El programa se concretiza a trav√©s del presente libro, conformado con una inspiraci√≥n de investigaci√≥n multidisciplinaria; sin embargo, para llegar a tal fin, el reto es realizar el proceso de b√ļsqueda y generaci√≥n de conocimiento transitando hacia la colaboraci√≥n de los cuerpos acad√©micos, que puedan construir nuevos conocimientos fortalecidos por la convergencia de diferentes campos del saber. En consecuencia, la primera etapa de esta estrategia es la publicidad de los trabajos investigativos ejercidos, para hacer un balance al d√≠a, pero tambi√©n proyectar el futuro de cada campo y √°rea del conocimiento. La organizaci√≥n explicativa est√° organizada por tres bloques representativos del quehacer en la generaci√≥n de conocimiento del Centro Universitario, un primer bloque centra el inter√©s en las humanidades, educaci√≥n y sustentabilidad; el segundo bloque lo integra la reflexi√≥n cient√≠fica sobre la construcci√≥n democr√°tica, derechos humanos y equidad de g√©nero; en el tercer segmento se destina a la seguridad alimentaria, salud p√ļblica y sistemas agropecuarios. La actualidad de la investigaci√≥n eleva la producci√≥n lograda y lo que en el momento se encuentra en construcci√≥n y los alcances que produce para la docencia, la investigaci√≥n misma, y para la sociedad en general. La prospectiva es un √°rea que todos los cap√≠tulos desarrollan con el prop√≥sito de delinear los alcances innovadores por andar en teor√≠a, metodolog√≠a e incluso en los saberes mismo

    Mortality from gastrointestinal congenital anomalies at 264 hospitals in 74 low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries: a multicentre, international, prospective cohort study

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    Summary Background Congenital anomalies are the fifth leading cause of mortality in children younger than 5 years globally. Many gastrointestinal congenital anomalies are fatal without timely access to neonatal surgical care, but few studies have been done on these conditions in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We compared outcomes of the seven most common gastrointestinal congenital anomalies in low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries globally, and identified factors associated with mortality. Methods We did a multicentre, international prospective cohort study of patients younger than 16 years, presenting to hospital for the first time with oesophageal atresia, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, intestinal atresia, gastroschisis, exomphalos, anorectal malformation, and Hirschsprung‚Äôs disease. Recruitment was of consecutive patients for a minimum of 1 month between October, 2018, and April, 2019. We collected data on patient demographics, clinical status, interventions, and outcomes using the REDCap platform. Patients were followed up for 30 days after primary intervention, or 30 days after admission if they did not receive an intervention. The primary outcome was all-cause, in-hospital mortality for all conditions combined and each condition individually, stratified by country income status. We did a complete case analysis. Findings We included 3849 patients with 3975 study conditions (560 with oesophageal atresia, 448 with congenital diaphragmatic hernia, 681 with intestinal atresia, 453 with gastroschisis, 325 with exomphalos, 991 with anorectal malformation, and 517 with Hirschsprung‚Äôs disease) from 264 hospitals (89 in high-income countries, 166 in middleincome countries, and nine in low-income countries) in 74 countries. Of the 3849 patients, 2231 (58¬∑0%) were male. Median gestational age at birth was 38 weeks (IQR 36‚Äď39) and median bodyweight at presentation was 2¬∑8 kg (2¬∑3‚Äď3¬∑3). Mortality among all patients was 37 (39¬∑8%) of 93 in low-income countries, 583 (20¬∑4%) of 2860 in middle-income countries, and 50 (5¬∑6%) of 896 in high-income countries (p<0¬∑0001 between all country income groups). Gastroschisis had the greatest difference in mortality between country income strata (nine [90¬∑0%] of ten in lowincome countries, 97 [31¬∑9%] of 304 in middle-income countries, and two [1¬∑4%] of 139 in high-income countries; p‚ȧ0¬∑0001 between all country income groups). Factors significantly associated with higher mortality for all patients combined included country income status (low-income vs high-income countries, risk ratio 2¬∑78 [95% CI 1¬∑88‚Äď4¬∑11], p<0¬∑0001; middle-income vs high-income countries, 2¬∑11 [1¬∑59‚Äď2¬∑79], p<0¬∑0001), sepsis at presentation (1¬∑20 [1¬∑04‚Äď1¬∑40], p=0¬∑016), higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score at primary intervention (ASA 4‚Äď5 vs ASA 1‚Äď2, 1¬∑82 [1¬∑40‚Äď2¬∑35], p<0¬∑0001; ASA 3 vs ASA 1‚Äď2, 1¬∑58, [1¬∑30‚Äď1¬∑92], p<0¬∑0001]), surgical safety checklist not used (1¬∑39 [1¬∑02‚Äď1¬∑90], p=0¬∑035), and ventilation or parenteral nutrition unavailable when needed (ventilation 1¬∑96, [1¬∑41‚Äď2¬∑71], p=0¬∑0001; parenteral nutrition 1¬∑35, [1¬∑05‚Äď1¬∑74], p=0¬∑018). Administration of parenteral nutrition (0¬∑61, [0¬∑47‚Äď0¬∑79], p=0¬∑0002) and use of a peripherally inserted central catheter (0¬∑65 [0¬∑50‚Äď0¬∑86], p=0¬∑0024) or percutaneous central line (0¬∑69 [0¬∑48‚Äď1¬∑00], p=0¬∑049) were associated with lower mortality. Interpretation Unacceptable differences in mortality exist for gastrointestinal congenital anomalies between lowincome, middle-income, and high-income countries. Improving access to quality neonatal surgical care in LMICs will be vital to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 of ending preventable deaths in neonates and children younger than 5 years by 2030

    A search for massive resonances decaying to top quark pairs and jet trigger performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

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    Diese Arbeit behandelt die Suche nach neuen Teilchen, die in Top-Quark-Paare zerfallen (t¬Įt). Die Analyse beruht auf Daten des ATLAS-Experiments von Proton- Proton-Kollisionen am LHC bei einer Schwerpunktsenergie von p s = 7 TeV und einer Gesamtluminosit√§t von 2.05 fb‚ąí1. Hierzu wird der Lepton+Jets Endzustand im t¬Įt ! WbWb Zerfallskanal verwendet, worin ein W-Boson leptonisch und das andere hadronisch zerf√§llt. Das t¬Įt -Ereignis wird sowohl in aufgel√∂sten als auch geboosteten Zerfallstopologien rekonstruiert. Zum ersten Mal werden die Korrelationen beider Kan√§le in Form einer dritten Kategorie nutzbar gemacht, welche aus Ereignissen besteht, die in beiden Topologien selektiert wurden. Die Sensitivit√§t der Analyse wird hierdurch erh√∂ht. Obere Schranken bei 95% Vertrauensniveau auf den Wirkungsquerschnitt multipliziert mit der Zerfallsbreite f√ľr massive Zust√§nde gro√üer und kleiner Zerfallsbreite werden berechnet. Diese werden aus der Kombination der beiden Ans√§tze der t¬Įt -Rekonstruktion gewonnen. F√ľr die Z0-Resonanz kleiner Breite reicht die beobachtete (erwartete) obere Grenze auf den Wirkungsquerschnitt von 4.85 (4.81) pb, f√ľr eine Masse von 0.6 TeV, bis 0.21 (0.13) pb, f√ľr eine Masse von 2 TeV. Eine schmale leptophobische Topcolor-Z0-Resonanzen mit einer Masse unterhalb von 1.3 TeV kann ausgeschlossen werden. Weiterhin konnten beobachtete (erwartete) obere Grenzen auch f√ľr eine breite Farboktett-Resonanz berechnet werden. Diese liegen zwischen 2.52 (2.59) pb und 0.37 (0.27) pb f√ľr Massen von 0.7 TeV bzw. 2 TeV. Breite Kaluza-Klein-Gluon-Resonanzen mit einer Masse unter 1.65 TeV k√∂nnen ausgeschlossen werden.This thesis presents the search for new particles that decay into top quark pairs (t¬Įt). The analysis is performed with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, using an integrated luminosity of 2.05 fb‚ąí1 of proton‚Äďproton collision data, collected at a center-of-mass energy of p s = 7 TeV. The lepton plus jets final state is used in the t¬Įt ! WbWb decay, where one W boson decays leptonically and the other hadronically. The t¬Įt system is reconstructed using both resolved and boosted topologies of the top-quark decay. For the first time, correlations between the two search channels have been employed by creating a third channel with the events selected by both analyses. The sensitivity to new physics phenomena is thereby improved. Upper limits are derived on the production cross-section times branching ratio for narrow and wide massive states, at the 95 % confidence level. These are extracted by combining the two approaches of the t¬Įt reconstruction. For a narrow Z0 resonance, the observed (expected) upper limits range from 4.85 (4.81) pb for a mass of 0.6 TeV, to 0.21 (0.13) pb for a mass of 2 TeV. A narrow leptophobic topcolor Z0 resonance with a mass below 1.3 TeV is excluded. Observed (expected) limits are also derived for a broad color-octet resonance. They vary between 2.52 (2.59) pb and 0.37 (0.27) pb for a mass of 0.7 TeV and 2 TeV, respectively. The wide Kaluza-Klein gluon with a mass below 1.65 TeV is excluded. Another aspect of this thesis are performance studies of the level-1 jet trigger. Trigger efficiencies have been measured, using data collected by the ATLAS detector in 2010 at p s = 7 TeV. The turn-on curves obtained for a variety of jet triggers, showed good agreement between data and simulation in the plateau region. The efficiency results were used at the first stage of analyses for multi-jet cross-section measurements

    Border Theory: A New Point of Access into Literature. A border-theoretical reading of China Miéville’s Un Lun Dun, The City and the City and Embassytown

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    ‚ÄúBorder Theory: A New Point of Access into Literature‚ÄĚ seeks to explore the use of a border-theoretical approach to literature. Border theories by Johan Schimanski, Stephen Wolfe, David Newman, Homi Bhabha, and a set of different border planes ‚Äď the symbolic, epistemological, topographic, temporal and textual border plane ‚Äď provide the scholarly framework for this thesis. Border theory studies the notion of hybridity, diversity and doubling, discusses the border and the change between the visible and invisibility, reviews binary oppositions and goes on to explore how borders can move beyond binaries and create a new space ‚Äď a third space. The thesis uses three novels by China Mi√©ville to examine border theory: Un Lun Dun (2007), The City and the City (2009) and Embassytown (2011). Mi√©ville is a science fiction writer that introduces the genre of weird fiction. The main idea is that border theory, as its own theoretical point of access into the field of literary studies, can contribute with a new aspect of literary analysis, and that China Mi√©ville‚Äôs contemporary weird fiction invites and benefits from a border-theoretical analysis. Border theory creates a new access-point into the theoretical analysis of novels, and further explores and shows how borders are represented in literature. Un Lun Dun presents the reader with a city and its abcity where the border between the two is not easy to see and understand. In addition, the abcity UnLondon is filled with strange spaces and extraordinary characters that give no shortage of borders to explore. The City and the City is a detective story that crosses the border between two sister cities ‚Äď BesŇļel and Ul Qoma ‚Äď with an invisible law enforcement agency operating within the invisible border between the two cities. Embassytown uses language as a barrier and a border between species. Set in the far future, the novel describes and explores complex relations and divisions of space, time and people ‚Äď and the complications surrounding the inability to communicate. These novels have been chosen because of their borders-inquisitive qualities, and together they can each be read as a piece of the puzzle to a more complex understanding of borders and border crossings ‚Äď both in literature and in real life. ‚ÄúBorder Theory: A New Point of Access into Literature ‚Äď A border-theoretical reading of China Mi√©ville‚Äôs Un Lun Dun, The City and the City and Embassytown‚ÄĚ is a thesis with a theoretical approach to contemporary literature ‚Äď exploring the literary field of border theory

    Trends in Outcomes for Neonates Born Very Preterm and Very Low Birth Weight in 11 High-Income Countries

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    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outcome trends of neonates born very preterm in 11 high-income countries participating in the International Network for Evaluating Outcomes of neonates. STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective cohort study, we included 154 233 neonates admitted to 529 neonatal units between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2015, at 24(0/7) to 31(6/7) weeks of gestational age and birth weight <1500 g. Composite outcomes were in-hospital mortality or any of severe neurologic injury, treated retinopathy of prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD); and same composite outcome excluding BPD. Secondary outcomes were mortality and individual morbidities. For each country, annual outcome trends and adjusted relative risks comparing epoch 2 (2012-2015) to epoch 1 (2007-2011) were analyzed. RESULTS: For composite outcome including BPD, the trend decreased in Canada and Israel but increased in Australia and New Zealand, Japan, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. For composite outcome excluding BPD, the trend decreased in all countries except Spain, Sweden, Tuscany, and the United Kingdom. The risk of composite outcome was lower in epoch 2 than epoch 1 in Canada (adjusted relative risks 0.78; 95% CI 0.74-0.82) only. The risk of composite outcome excluding BPD was significantly lower in epoch 2 compared with epoch 1 in Australia and New Zealand, Canada, Finland, Japan, and Switzerland. Mortality rates reduced in most countries in epoch 2. BPD rates increased significantly in all countries except Canada, Israel, Finland, and Tuscany. CONCLUSIONS: In most countries, mortality decreased whereas BPD increased for neonates born very preterm

    Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), Far Detector Technical Design Report, Volume I Introduction to DUNE

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    International audienceThe preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, the dynamics of the supernovae that produced the heavy elements necessary for life, and whether protons eventually decay‚ÄĒthese mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our universe, its current state, and its eventual fate. The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is an international world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions as it searches for leptonic charge-parity symmetry violation, stands ready to capture supernova neutrino bursts, and seeks to observe nucleon decay as a signature of a grand unified theory underlying the standard model. The DUNE far detector technical design report (TDR) describes the DUNE physics program and the technical designs of the single- and dual-phase DUNE liquid argon TPC far detector modules. This TDR is intended to justify the technical choices for the far detector that flow down from the high-level physics goals through requirements at all levels of the Project. Volume I contains an executive summary that introduces the DUNE science program, the far detector and the strategy for its modular designs, and the organization and management of the Project. The remainder of Volume I provides more detail on the science program that drives the choice of detector technologies and on the technologies themselves. It also introduces the designs for the DUNE near detector and the DUNE computing model, for which DUNE is planning design reports. Volume II of this TDR describes DUNE's physics program in detail. Volume III describes the technical coordination required for the far detector design, construction, installation, and integration, and its organizational structure. Volume IV describes the single-phase far detector technology. A planned Volume V will describe the dual-phase technology

    Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), Far Detector Technical Design Report, Volume II: DUNE Physics