1,213 research outputs found

### Trilogy on Computing Maximal Eigenpair

The eigenpair here means the twins consist of eigenvalue and its eigenvector.
This paper introduces the three steps of our study on computing the maximal
eigenpair. In the first two steps, we construct efficient initials for a known
but dangerous algorithm, first for tridiagonal matrices and then for
irreducible matrices, having nonnegative off-diagonal elements. In the third
step, we present two global algorithms which are still efficient and work well
for a quite large class of matrices, even complex for instance.Comment: Updated versio

### A model-based multithreshold method for subgroup identification

Thresholding variable plays a crucial role in subgroup identification for personalizedmedicine. Most existing partitioning methods split the sample basedon one predictor variable. In this paper, we consider setting the splitting rulefrom a combination of multivariate predictors, such as the latent factors, principlecomponents, and weighted sum of predictors. Such a subgrouping methodmay lead to more meaningful partitioning of the population than using a singlevariable. In addition, our method is based on a change point regression modeland thus yields straight forward model-based prediction results. After choosinga particular thresholding variable form, we apply a two-stage multiple changepoint detection method to determine the subgroups and estimate the regressionparameters. We show that our approach can produce two or more subgroupsfrom the multiple change points and identify the true grouping with high probability.In addition, our estimation results enjoy oracle properties. We design asimulation study to compare performances of our proposed and existing methodsand apply them to analyze data sets from a Scleroderma trial and a breastcancer study

### On inexact alternating direction implicit iteration for continuous Sylvester equations

In this paper, we study the alternating direction implicit (ADI) iteration for
solving the continuous Sylvester equation AX +XB=C, where the coefficient
matrices A and B are assumed to be positive semi-definite matrices (not necessarily
Hermitian), and at least one of them to be positive definite. We first
analyze the convergence of the ADI iteration for solving such a class of Sylvester
equations, then derive an upper bound for the contraction factor of this ADI
iteration. To reduce its computational complexity, we further propose an inexact
variant of the ADI iteration, which employs some Krylov subspace methods as
its inner iteration processes at each step of the outer ADI iteration. The convergence
is also analyzed in detail. The numerical experiments are given to illustrate
the effectiveness of both ADI and inexact ADI iterations.The authors are grateful to the anonymous referees for their valuable comments and suggestions which improved the quality of this paper. Also, The authors would like to thank the supports of the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11371075, the Hunan Key Laboratory of mathematical modeling and analysis in engineering, the Portuguese Funds through FCT-Fundacao para a Ciencia, within the Project UIDB/00013/2020 and UIDP/00013/2020. This work does not have any conflicts of interest

### An Efficient Approximate kNN Graph Method for Diffusion on Image Retrieval

The application of the diffusion in many computer vision and artificial
intelligence projects has been shown to give excellent improvements in
performance. One of the main bottlenecks of this technique is the quadratic
growth of the kNN graph size due to the high-quantity of new connections
between nodes in the graph, resulting in long computation times. Several
strategies have been proposed to address this, but none are effective and
efficient. Our novel technique, based on LSH projections, obtains the same
performance as the exact kNN graph after diffusion, but in less time
(approximately 18 times faster on a dataset of a hundred thousand images). The
proposed method was validated and compared with other state-of-the-art on
several public image datasets, including Oxford5k, Paris6k, and Oxford105k

### Fitness differences suppress the number of mating types in evolving isogamous species

Sexual reproduction is not always synonymous with the existence of two morphologically different sexes; isogamous species produce sex cells of equal size, typically falling into multiple distinct self-incompatible classes, termed mating types. A long-standing open question in evolutionary biology is: what governs the number of these mating types across species? Simple theoretical arguments imply an advantage to rare types, suggesting the number of types should grow consistently; however, empirical observations are very different. While some isogamous species exhibit thousands of mating types, such species are exceedingly rare, and most have fewer than 10. In this paper, we present a mathematical analysis to quantify the role of fitness variation—characterized by different mortality rates—in determining the number of mating types emerging in simple evolutionary models. We predict that the number of mating types decreases as the variance of mortality increases

### Parameter estimation for a morphochemical reaction-diffusion model of electrochemical pattern formation

The process of electrodeposition can be described in terms of a reaction-diffusion PDE system that models the dynamics of the morphology profile and the chemical composition. Here we fit such a model to the different patterns present in a range of electrodeposited and electrochemically modified alloys using PDE constrained optimization. Experiments with simulated data show how the parameter space of the model can be divided into zones corresponding to the different physical patterns by examining the structure of an appropriate cost function. We then use real data to demonstrate how numerical optimization of the cost function can allow the model to fit the rich variety of patterns arising in experiments. The computational technique developed provides a potential tool for tuning experimental parameters to produce desired patterns

### Class of invariants for the 2D time-dependent Landau problem and harmonic oscillator in a magnetic field

We consider an isotropic two dimensional harmonic oscillator with arbitrarily
time-dependent mass $M(t)$ and frequency $\Omega(t)$ in an arbitrarily
time-dependent magnetic field $B(t)$. We determine two commuting invariant
observables (in the sense of Lewis and Riesenfeld) $L,I$ in terms of some
solution of an auxiliary ordinary differential equation and an orthonormal
basis of the Hilbert space consisting of joint eigenvectors $\phi_\lambda$ of
$L,I$. We then determine time-dependent phases $\alpha_\lambda(t)$ such that
the $\psi_\lambda(t)=e^{i\alpha_\lambda}\phi_\lambda$ are solutions of the
time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation and make up an orthonormal basis of the
Hilbert space. These results apply, in particular to a two dimensional Landau
problem with time-dependent $M,B$, which is obtained from the above just by
setting $\Omega(t) \equiv 0$. By a mere redefinition of the parameters, these
results can be applied also to the analogous models on the canonical
non-commutative plane.Comment: 13 pages, 3 references adde

### Simulation of Harmonic Oscillators on the Lattice

[EN] This work deals with the simulation of a two¿dimensional ideal lattice having simple tetragonal geometry. The harmonic character of the oscillators give rise to a system of second¿order linear differential equations, which can be recast into matrix form. The explicit solutions which govern the dynamics of this system can be expressed in terms of matrix trigonometric functions. For the derivation we employ the Lagrangian formalism to determine the correct solutions, which extremize the underlying action of the system. In the numerical evaluation we develop diverse state¿of¿the¿art algorithms which efficiently tackle equations with matrix sine and cosine functions. For this purpose, we introduce two special series related to trigonometric functions. They provide approximate solutions of the system through a suitable combination. For the final computation an algorithm based on Taylor expansion with forward and backward error analysis for computing those series had to be devised. We also implement several MATLAB programs which simulate and visualize the two¿dimensional lattice and check its energy conservation.This work has been supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad, the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) under grant TIN2017-89314-P, and the Programa de Apoyo a la Investigacion y Desarrollo 2018 (PAID-06-18) of the Universitat Politecnica de Valencia under grant SP20180016.Tung, MM.; Ibáñez González, JJ.; Defez Candel, E.; Sastre, J. (2020). Simulation of Harmonic Oscillators on the Lattice. Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences. 43(14):8237-8252. https://doi.org/10.1002/mma.6510S823782524314Dehghan, M., & Hajarian, M. (2009). Determination of a matrix function using the divided difference method of Newton and the interpolation technique of Hermite. Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, 231(1), 67-81. doi:10.1016/j.cam.2009.01.021Dehghan, M., & Hajarian, M. (2010). Computing matrix functions using mixed interpolation methods. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 52(5-6), 826-836. doi:10.1016/j.mcm.2010.05.013Kazem, S., & Dehghan, M. (2017). Application of finite difference method of lines on the heat equation. Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations, 34(2), 626-660. doi:10.1002/num.22218Kazem, S., & Dehghan, M. (2018). Semi-analytical solution for time-fractional diffusion equation based on finite difference method of lines (MOL). Engineering with Computers, 35(1), 229-241. doi:10.1007/s00366-018-0595-5Paterson, M. S., & Stockmeyer, L. J. (1973). On the Number of Nonscalar Multiplications Necessary to Evaluate Polynomials. SIAM Journal on Computing, 2(1), 60-66. doi:10.1137/0202007Sastre, J., Ibáñez, J., Defez, E., & Ruiz, P. (2011). Efficient orthogonal matrix polynomial based method for computing matrix exponential. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 217(14), 6451-6463. doi:10.1016/j.amc.2011.01.004Higham, N. J. (2008). Functions of Matrices. doi:10.1137/1.9780898717778Sastre, J., Ibáñez, J., Defez, E., & Ruiz, P. (2011). Accurate matrix exponential computation to solve coupled differential models in engineering. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 54(7-8), 1835-1840. doi:10.1016/j.mcm.2010.12.049Serbin, S. M., & Blalock, S. A. (1980). An Algorithm for Computing the Matrix Cosine. SIAM Journal on Scientific and Statistical Computing, 1(2), 198-204. doi:10.1137/0901013Ruiz, P., Sastre, J., Ibáñez, J., & Defez, E. (2016). High performance computing of the matrix exponential. Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, 291, 370-379. doi:10.1016/j.cam.2015.04.001Higham, N. J. (1988). FORTRAN codes for estimating the one-norm of a real or complex matrix, with applications to condition estimation. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 14(4), 381-396. doi:10.1145/50063.21438

### Model-Based Flaw Reconstruction and Flaw Parameter Estimation Using a Limited Set of Radiographic Projections

This paper presents an approach to the reconstruction and parameter estimation of flaw models in NDE radiography. The reconstruction of flaw models rather than the flaw distribution itself reduces the required number of projections as well as the complexity of the measurement system [1,2]. In this approach, crack-like flaws are modeled as piecewise linear curves, and volumetric flaws are modeled as ellipsoids. Our emphasis here is on a method for estimating the model parameters for crack-like flaws using a linear model with more than the minimal number of required projections. Extra projections reduce the effects of measurement errors and film noise. We also present the development of the volumetric flaw model and outline a method for its inversion

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