16,778 research outputs found

    Robustness of the avalanche dynamics in data packet transport on scale-free networks

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    We study the avalanche dynamics in the data packet transport on scale-free networks through a simple model. In the model, each vertex is assigned a capacity proportional to the load with a proportionality constant 1+a1+a. When the system is perturbed by a single vertex removal, the load of each vertex is redistributed, followed by subsequent failures of overloaded vertices. The avalanche size depends on the parameter aa as well as which vertex triggers it. We find that there exists a critical value aca_c at which the avalanche size distribution follows a power law. The critical exponent associated with it appears to be robust as long as the degree exponent is between 2 and 3, and is close in value to that of the distribution of the diameter changes by single vertex removal.Comment: 5 pages, 7 figures, final version published in PR

    Establishing links between organizational climate, employee well-being and historical patient outcomes

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    This research undertaken in collaboration with Queensland Health analysed the links between dimensions of workplace climate/employee well-being contained in a number of Queensland Health databases, including the Patient Satisfaction Survey, the Clinical Incident database, the compliments and complaints database, the Variable Life Adjusted Display (VLAD) Database and the Better Workplaces Staff Opinion Survey database. Queensland Health sought to identify in what ways workplace climate is related to patient outcomes using existing datasets collected within the Queensland Health Centre for Healthcare Improvement. The process of establishing links involved matching aggregated data for specific facilities (where possible), or failing that, larger facilities (e.g. Hospital), or the Health Service District. Once the datasets had been matched on location or facility, correlations were calculated between the aggregated scores. The results demonstrated links between the data sets. These links showed that a better workplace climate is associated with greater reported numbers of clinical incidents, especially “no harm” clinical incidents. There was also a link between workplace climate and patient compliments/complaints which show that unsolicited compliments received from patients and their families are clearly related to a number of positive aspects of workplace climate (workplace morale, role clarity, and appraisal and recognition) and individual morale. The results linking workplace climate and patient satisfaction showed that there is a strong positive relationship between overall patient satisfaction and role clarity, and a negative relationship between overall patient satisfaction and both workplace distress and excessive work demands. While these results relate to historical data and therefore should not be construed to reflect the current state of operation within Queensland Health, they are still indicative of some very important relationships. This is the first study to demonstrate that more positive clinical management practices, better perceptions of the workplace climate and better employee well-being are a reflection of a better incident reporting and learning culture in a health care organization, ultimately resulting in improved patient outcomes

    Intrinsic degree-correlations in static model of scale-free networks

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    We calculate the mean neighboring degree function kˉnn(k)\bar k_{\rm{nn}}(k) and the mean clustering function C(k)C(k) of vertices with degree kk as a function of kk in finite scale-free random networks through the static model. While both are independent of kk when the degree exponent γ3\gamma \geq 3, they show the crossover behavior for 2<γ<32 < \gamma < 3 from kk-independent behavior for small kk to kk-dependent behavior for large kk. The kk-dependent behavior is analytically derived. Such a behavior arises from the prevention of self-loops and multiple edges between each pair of vertices. The analytic results are confirmed by numerical simulations. We also compare our results with those obtained from a growing network model, finding that they behave differently from each other.Comment: 8 page

    It's Difficult to Explain Away the Appearance That Causation Comes in Degrees: A Reply to Sartorio

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    Does the relation of (actual) causation admit of degrees? Is it sensible to say, for example, that ‘as compared to his consuming the light beer, Clement's consuming the moonshine was more a cause of his becoming drunk’? Suppose the answer is ‘yes’. Suppose also that country A unjustifiably ignites a lethal war with country B, and you intuit that, while most combatants of A are liable to lethal counterattack, most non-combatants of A aren't similarly liable. Then, you might support your intuition by reasoning as follows. ‘Perhaps most non-combatants of A causally contribute to A's unjust, lethal war effort. However, unlike most combatants of A, their causal contributions are not of such a degree that makes them liable to lethal counterattack’. Such reasoning is rejected by Carolina Sartorio. This is due to the recent revealing of a certain puzzle, one which suggests to Sartorio that causation does not come in degrees. Now, one motivation for Sartorio's reaction to the aforementioned puzzle is her thought that we can, for the most part, ‘explain away’ the ‘illusion’ that causation comes in degrees. I will argue that Sartorio insufficiently supports her foregoing thought. Using Sartorio's resources, we cannot (largely) ‘explain away’ the widespread appearance that causation comes in degrees

    A system to enrich for primitive streak-derivatives, definitive endoderm and mesoderm, from pluripotent cells in culture

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    Two lineages of endoderm develop during mammalian embryogenesis, the primitive endoderm in the pre-implantation blastocyst and the definitive endoderm at gastrulation. This complexity of endoderm cell populations is mirrored during pluripotent cell differentiation in vitro and has hindered the identification and purification of the definitive endoderm for use as a substrate for further differentiation. The aggregation and differentiation of early primitive ectoderm-like (EPL) cells, resulting in the formation of EPL-cell derived embryoid bodies (EPLEBs), is a model of gastrulation that progresses through the sequential formation of primitive streak-like intermediates to nascent mesoderm and more differentiated mesoderm populations. EPL cell-derived EBs have been further analysed for the formation of definitive endoderm by detailed morphological studies, gene expression and a protein uptake assay. In comparison to embryoid bodies derived from ES cells, which form primitive and definitive endoderm, the endoderm compartment of embryoid bodies formed from EPL cells was comprised almost exclusively of definitive endoderm. Definitive endoderm was defined as a population of squamous cells that expressed Sox17, CXCR4 and Trh, which formed without the prior formation of primitive endoderm and was unable to endocytose horseradish peroxidase from the medium. Definitive endoderm formed in EPLEBs provides a substrate for further differentiation into specific endoderm lineages; these lineages can be used as research tools for understanding the mechanisms controlling lineage establishment and the nature of the transient intermediates formed. The similarity between mouse EPL cells and human ES cells suggests EPLEBs can be used as a model system for the development of technologies to enrich for the formation of human ES cell-derived definitive endoderm in the future.Sveltana Vassilieva, Hweee Ngee Goh, Kevin X. Lau, James N. Hughes, Mary Familari, Peter D. Rathjen and Joy Rathje

    Sandpiles on multiplex networks

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    We introduce the sandpile model on multiplex networks with more than one type of edge and investigate its scaling and dynamical behaviors. We find that the introduction of multiplexity does not alter the scaling behavior of avalanche dynamics; the system is critical with an asymptotic power-law avalanche size distribution with an exponent τ=3/2\tau = 3/2 on duplex random networks. The detailed cascade dynamics, however, is affected by the multiplex coupling. For example, higher-degree nodes such as hubs in scale-free networks fail more often in the multiplex dynamics than in the simplex network counterpart in which different types of edges are simply aggregated. Our results suggest that multiplex modeling would be necessary in order to gain a better understanding of cascading failure phenomena of real-world multiplex complex systems, such as the global economic crisis.Comment: 7 pages, 7 figure