19 research outputs found

    The Robot and Human Futures: Visualising Autonomy in Law and Science Fiction

    No full text
    This article argues that legal discourses about robots are framed within a limiting ‘human paradigm.’ While this is not a specific failure of lawyers, it has significant consequences for law in a digital future. This visualising of robots has its origins in mainstream twentieth-century science fictional tropes of artificial beings. This article begins by identifying the predominant science fiction tropes regarding artificial beings as a source of anxiety for human futures, as located in discrete bodies and as separate from humans. The article then traces this ‘human paradigm’ in robot law scholarship. It is shown how a focus on embodiment and separation disrupts appreciation of the emerging partial disembodiment and hybridity of digital autonomy. There is a continual sense of needing to keep robots and humans distinct and separate, which is not how digital futures are manifesting

    ‘The machine runs itself’:law is technology and Australian embryo and human cloning law

    No full text
    Technology law scholarship has a tendency towards the dramatic. Technology causes disruption. Law must catch-up; it must ensure potential benefits from technology and avoid potential harms. There are even concerns that law, as an organiser of human life, is itself becoming eclipsed by forms of technological management. What is often not focused on is the practical process through which concerns about technology become transmuted into legal forms within specific jurisdictions. This paper examines the 23 years of Australian law concerning embryos and human cloning. Inspired by Carl Schmitt’s criticism of modernity’s political institutions and the laws they produce, what is identified is a machine that runs itself. It is shown to be a highly automated process whereby technical experts manage competing values. Rather than law regulating technology or technology regulating law; the Australian study suggests that law and its making, is technological

    Antimelanogenic of Artemisia fukudo Makino Extract in Melanoma Cells

    No full text

    Sclerostin is a locally acting regulator of late-osteoblast/preosteocyte differentiation and regulates mineralization through a MEPE-ASARM-dependent mechanism

    No full text
    The identity of the cell type responsive to sclerostin, a negative regulator of bone mass, is unknown. Since sclerostin is expressed in vivo by mineral-embedded osteocytes, we tested the hypothesis that sclerostin would regulate the behavior of cells actively involved in mineralization in adult bone, the preosteocyte. Differentiating cultures of human primary osteoblasts exposed to recombinant human sclerostin (rhSCL) for 35 days displayed dose- and time-dependent inhibition of in vitro mineralization, with late cultures being most responsive in terms of mineralization and gene expression. Treatment of advanced (day 35) cultures with rhSCL markedly increased the expression of the preosteocyte marker E11 and decreased the expression of mature markers DMP1 and SOST. Concomitantly, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) expression was increased by rhSCL at both the mRNA and protein levels, whereas PHEX was decreased, implying regulation through the MEPE-ASARM axis. We confirmed that mineralization by human osteoblasts is exquisitely sensitive to the triphosphorylated ASARM-PO4 peptide. Immunostaining revealed that rhSCL increased the endogenous levels of MEPE-ASARM. Importantly, antibody-mediated neutralization of endogenous MEPE-ASARM antagonized the effect of rhSCL on mineralization, as did the PHEX synthetic peptide SPR4. Finally, we found elevated Sost mRNA expression in the long bones of HYP mice, suggesting that sclerostin may drive the increased MEPE-ASARM levels and mineralization defect in this genotype. Our results suggest that sclerostin acts through regulation of the PHEX/MEPE axis at the preosteocyte stage and serves as a master regulator of physiologic bone mineralization, consistent with its localization in vivo and its established role in the inhibition of bone formation.Gerald J Atkins, Peter S Rowe, Hui P Lim, Katie J Welldon, Renee Ormsby, Asiri R Wijenayaka, Lesya Zelenchuk, Andreas Evdokiou, David M Findla
    corecore