179 research outputs found

    Evolution, nucleosynthesis and yields of AGB stars at different metallicities (III): intermediate mass models, revised low mass models and the ph-FRUITY interface

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    We present a new set of models for intermediate mass AGB stars (4.0, 5.0 and, 6.0 Msun) at different metallicities (-2.15<=Fe/H]<=+0.15). This integrates the existing set of models for low mass AGB stars (1.3<=M/M<=3.0) already included in the FRUITY database. We describe the physical and chemical evolution of the computed models from the Main Sequence up to the end of the AGB phase. Due to less efficient third dredge up episodes, models with large core masses show modest surface enhancements. The latter is due to the fact that the interpulse phases are short and, then, Thermal Pulses are weak. Moreover, the high temperature at the base of the convective envelope prevents it to deeply penetrate the radiative underlying layers. Depending on the initial stellar mass, the heavy elements nucleosynthesis is dominated by different neutron sources. In particular, the s-process distributions of the more massive models are dominated by the \nean~reaction, which is efficiently activated during Thermal Pulses. At low metallicities, our models undergo hot bottom burning and hot third dredge up. We compare our theoretical final core masses to available white dwarf observations. Moreover, we quantify the weight that intermediate mass models have on the carbon stars luminosity function. Finally, we present the upgrade of the FRUITY web interface, now also including the physical quantities of the TP-AGB phase of all the models included in the database (ph-FRUITY).Comment: Accepted for publication on ApJ

    Developing a self-consistent AGB wind model - II. Non-classical, non-equilibrium polymer nucleation in a chemical mixture

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    Unravelling the composition and characteristics of gas and dust lost by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is important as these stars play a vital role in the chemical life cycle of galaxies. The general hypothesis of their mass-loss mechanism is a combination of stellar pulsations and radiative pressure on dust grains. However, current models simplify dust formation, which starts as a microscopic phase transition called nucleation. Various nucleation theories exist, yet all assume chemical equilibrium, growth restricted by monomers, and commonly use macroscopic properties for a microscopic process. Such simplifications for initial dust formation can have large repercussions on the type, amount, and formation time of dust. By abandoning equilibrium assumptions, discarding growth restrictions, and using quantum mechanical properties, we have constructed and investigated an improved nucleation theory in AGB wind conditions for four dust candidates, TiO2, MgO, SiO, and Al2O3. This paper reports the viability of these candidates as first dust precursors and reveals implications of simplified nucleation theories. Monomer restricted growth underpredicts large clusters at low temperatures and overpredicts formation times. Assuming the candidates are present, Al2O3 is the favoured precursor due to its rapid growth at the highest considered temperatures. However, when considering an initially atomic chemical mixture, only TiO2-clusters form. Still, we believe Al2O3 to be the prime candidate due to substantial physical evidence in presolar grains, observations of dust around AGB stars at high temperatures, and its ability to form at high temperatures and expect the missing link to be insufficient quantitative data of Al-reaction

    Infrared spectra of TiO2 clusters for hot Jupiter atmospheres

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    Context. Clouds seem unavoidable in cool and dense environments, and hence, are necessary to explain observations of exoplanet atmospheres, most recently of WASP 96b with JWST. Understanding the formation of cloud condensation nuclei in non-terrestrial environments is therefore crucial to develop accurate models to interpret present and future observations. Aims. The goal of the paper is to support observations with infrared spectra for (TiO2)N clusters in order to study cloud formation in exoplanet atmospheres. Methods. Vibrational frequencies are derived from quantum-chemical calculations for 123 (TiO2)-clusters and their isomers, and line-broadening mechanisms are evaluated. Cluster spectra are calculated for several atmospheric levels for two example exoplanet atmospheres (WASP 121b-like and WASP 96b-like) to identify possible spectral fingerprints for cloud formation. Results. Rotational motion of and transitions in the clusters cause significant line broadening, so that individual vibrational lines are broadened beyond the spectral resolution of the medium resolution mode of the JWST mid-infrared instrument MIRI at R = 3000. However, each individual cluster isomer exhibits a "fingerprint" IR spectrum. In particular, larger (TiO2)-clusters have distinctly different spectra from smaller clusters. Morning and evening terminator for the same planet can exhibit different total absorbances due to different cluster sizes being more abundant. Conclusions. The largest (TiO2)-clusters are not necessarily the most abundant (TiO2)-clusters in the high-altitude regions of ultra-hot Jupiters, and the different cluster isomers will contribute to the local absorbance. Planets with a considerable day-night asymmetry will be most suitable to search for (TiO2)-cluster isomers in order to improve cloud formation modelling.Comment: 8 pages, 8 figures, 1 table, accepted for publication in A&

    Sulphur-bearing molecules in AGB stars II: Abundances and distributions of CS and SiS

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    We surveyed 20 AGB stars of different chemical types using the APEX telescope, and combined this with an IRAM 30 m and APEX survey of CS and SiS emission towards over 30 S-type stars. For those stars with detections, we performed radiative transfer modelling to determine abundances and abundance distributions. We detect CS towards all the surveyed carbon stars, some S-type stars, and the highest mass-loss rate oxygen-rich stars (>5×106> 5\times 10^{-6} Msol yr1^{-1}). SiS is detected towards the highest mass-loss rate sources of all chemical types (>8×107> 8\times 10^{-7} Msol yr1^{-1}). We find CS peak fractional abundances ranging from ~ 4×107 4\times 10^{-7} to ~ 2×1052\times 10^{-5} for the carbon stars, from ~ 3×108 3\times 10^{-8} to ~ 1×1071\times 10^{-7} for the oxygen-rich stars and from ~ 1×107 1\times 10^{-7} to ~ 8×1068\times 10^{-6} for the S-type stars. We find SiS peak fractional abundances ranging from ~ 9×106 9\times 10^{-6} to ~ 2×105 2\times 10^{-5} for the carbon stars, from ~ 5×107 5\times 10^{-7} to ~ 2×106 2\times 10^{-6} for the oxygen-rich stars, and from ~ 2×107 2\times 10^{-7} to ~ 2×106 2\times 10^{-6} for the S-type stars. We derived Si32^{32}S/Si34^{34}S = 11.4 for AI Vol, the only star for which we had a reliable isotopologue detection. Overall, we find that wind density plays an important role in determining the chemical composition of AGB CSEs. It is seen that for oxygen-rich AGB stars both CS and SiS are detected only in the highest density circumstellar envelopes and their abundances are generally lower than for carbon-rich AGB stars by around an order of magnitude. For carbon-rich and S-type stars SiS was also only detected in the highest density circumstellar envelopes, while CS was detected consistently in all surveyed carbon stars and sporadically among the S-type stars

    Postpartum urinary retention: what are the sequelae? A long-term study and review of the literature.

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    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS Postpartum urinary retention (PUR) may cause long-term urogenital tract morbidity. The incidence ranges from 0.18 to 14.6%, but the importance of prompt diagnosis and appropriate management is often underappreciated. The paucity of data on long-term outcome after PUR contributes to these drawbacks. The aim of this study was to assess long-term persistence of elevated PVR (post-void residual urine) volume after PUR. Pathophysiology, risk factors and management of PUR are reviewed. METHODS In our tertiary referral urogynecology unit in the University Women's Hospital of Bern, Switzerland, all patients who were referred for PUR were asked to participate in this study. PVR was measured sonographically every 2 days until day 15, then after 6, 12, 24 and 36 months and, if increased, the patients were instructed to perform clean intermittent self-catheterization. If retention persisted longer than the lactation period, multichannel urodynamics was performed. RESULTS Sixty-two patients were included. The median PVR normalized at day 7. Long-term voiding disorders were found in 8.2%, 6.7%, and 4.9% after 1, 2, and 3 years respectively. Multichannel urodynamics confirmed in all patients with persisting retention an acontractile detrusor and de novo stress urinary incontinence in 4 cases. Quantile regression did not reveal any factor contributing to earlier recovery. Eighty-nine percent of the patients with PUR had operative vaginal deliveries, emphasizing the importance of this risk factor for PUR. CONCLUSIONS In most cases PUR resolves early, but voiding difficulties persist more often than previously thought, and for these patients the consequences are devastating. Obstetric awareness, early active management, and developing management strategies in the postpartum period might preclude lower urinary tract morbidity

    Constraints of the Physics of Low-mass AGB Stars from CH and CEMP Stars

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    We analyze a set of published elemental abundances from a sample of CH stars which are based on high resolution spectral analysis of ELODIE and SUBARU/HDS spectra. All the elemental abundances were derived from local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis using model atmospheres, and thus they represent the largest homogeneous abundance data available for CH stars to date. For this reason, we can use the set to constrain the physics and the nucleosynthesis occurring in low mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) s.tars. CH stars have been polluted in the past from an already extinct AGB companion and thus show s-process enriched surfaces. We discuss the effects induced on the surface AGB s-process distributions by different prescriptions for convection and rotation. Our reference theoretical FRUITY set fits only part of the observations. Moreover, the s-process observational spread for a fixed metallicity cannot be reproduced. At [Fe/H] > -1, a good fit is found when rotation and a different treatment of the inner border of the convective envelope are simultaneously taken into account. In order to increase the statistics at low metallicities, we include in our analysis a selected number of CEMP stars and, therefore, we compute additional AGB models down to [Fe/H] = -2.85. Our theoretical models are unable to attain the large [hs/ls] ratios characterizing the surfaces of those objects. We speculate on the reasons for such a discrepancy, discussing the possibility that the observed distribution is a result of a proton mixing episode leading to a very high neutron density (the so-called I-process)

    Dust formation in the oxygen-rich AGB star IK Tauri

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    Aims. We model the synthesis of molecules and dust in the inner wind of the oxygen-rich Mira-type star IK Tau by considering the effects of periodic shocks induced by the stellar pulsation on the gas and by following the non-equilibrium chemistry in the shocked gas layers between 1 R? and 10 R. We consider a very complete set of molecules and dust clusters, and combine the nucleation phase of dust formation with the condensation of these clusters into dust grains. We also test the impact of increasing the local gas density. Our derived molecular abundances and dust properties are compared to the most recent observational data. Methods. A semi-analytical formalism based on parameterised fluid equations is used to describe the gas density, velocity, and temperature in the inner wind. The chemistry is described by using a chemical kinetic network of reactions and the condensation mechanism is described by a Brownian formalism. A set of stiff, ordinary, coupled differential equations is solved, and molecular abundances, dust cluster abundances, grain size distributions and dust masses are derived. Results. The shocks drive an active non-equilibrium chemistry in the dust formation zone of IK Tau where the collision destruction of CO in the post-shock gas triggers the formation of C-bearing species such as HCN and CS. Most of the modelled molecular abundances agree well with the latest values derived from Herschel data, except for SO₂ and NH₃, whose formation may not occur in the inner wind. Clusters of alumina, Al₂O₃, are produced within 2 R and lead to a population of alumina grains close to the stellar surface. Clusters of silicates (Mg₂SiO₄) form at larger radii (r > 3 R), where their nucleation is triggered by the formation of HSiO and H₂SiO. They efficiently condense and reach their final grain size distribution between ∼ 6 R and 8 R with a major population of medium size grains peaking at ∼ 200 Å. This two dust-shell configuration agrees with recent interferometric observations. The derived dust-to-gas mass ratio for IK Tau is in the range 1 − 6 × 10‾³ and agrees with values derived from observations of O-rich Mira-type stars. Conclusions. Our results confirm the importance of periodic shocks in chemically shaping the inner wind of AGB stars and providing gas conditions conducive to the efficient synthesis of molecules and dust by non-equilibrium processes. They indicate that the wind acceleration will possibly develop in the radius range 4 − 8 R in IK Tau