12 research outputs found

    Renibacterium salmoninarum and Aeromonas salmonicida pathogenesis and virulence in lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus)

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    Renibacterium salmoninarum, the etiological agent of Bacterial Kidney Disease (BKD), and Aeromonas salmonicida, which causes furunculosis, are economically important pathogens of marine fish. The marine teleost lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) is an eco-friendly cleaner fish in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming. As the lumpfish demand in salmonid aquaculture continues to rise, understanding how lumpfish interact with well-known Gram-positive and Gram-negative fish pathogens is certainly required. Therefore, in my Ph.D. thesis, I studied the interactions between lumpfish host and Grampositive R. salmoninarum or Gram-negative A. salmonicida with a particular focus on the fundamental aspects of bacterial pathogenicity and virulence. First, I evaluated the lumpfish susceptibility and immune response to R. salmoninarum infection. Lumpfish showed typical BKD clinical signs and 35 % mortality when infected with a high dose of R. salmoninarum (1×109 cells dose-1). High bacterial loads were observed in tissues (i.e., spleen, liver, and head kidney) at 28 days post-infection (dpi), and R. salmoninarum continued to persist in tissues until 98 dpi. Further, gene expression analysis using qPCR in the fish head kidney found that R. salmoninarum causes immune suppression at 28 dpi and lumpfish induce a cell-mediated immune response at 98 dpi. Second, I profiled the lumpfish head kidney transcriptome response to R. salmoninarum at early (28 dpi) and chronic (98 dpi) infection using RNA sequencing. Compared to 98 dpi, lumpfish induced many molecular pathways and genes at 28 dpi. For instance, R. salmoninarum-induced genes at 28 dpi were linked to innate and adaptive immunity, while R. salmoninarum-suppressed genes were involved in amino acid metabolism, cellular and developmental processes. In contrast, the transcriptome response of the lumpfish head kidney to this pathogen was minimal at 98 dpi, with R. salmoninarumdependent dysregulation of genes primarily connected to cell-mediated adaptive immunity. Third, I described the riboflavin supply pathways of A. salmonicida. Using in silico tools and RT-PCR, I found that A. salmonicida has a riboflavin biosynthesis pathway (RBP) and a riboflavin transporter. Moreover, I constructed the deletion mutants of riboflavin biosynthesis genes, their duplicated copies, and the transporter (ribN) of A. salmonicida and studied their role in virulence and potential as live-attenuated vaccine candidates using the lumpfish infection model. The results showed that riboflavin biosynthesis is crucial for A. salmonicida virulence. Overall, the thesis provided fundamental insights into the pathogenicity and virulence of R. salmoninarum and A. salmonicida and lumpfish response. The findings presented here are valuable for developing immunoprophylactic measures for lumpfish against BKD and furunculosis

    Host–Pathogen Interactions of Marine Gram-Positive Bacteria

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    Marine Gram-positive bacterial pathogens, including Renibacterium salmoninarum, Mycobacterium marinum, Nocardia seriolae, Lactococcus garvieae, and Streptococcus spp. cause economic losses in marine fish aquaculture worldwide. Comprehensive information on these pathogens and their dynamic interactions with their respective fish–host systems are critical to developing effective prophylactic measures and treatments. While much is known about bacterial virulence and fish immune response, it is necessary to synthesize the knowledge in terms of host–pathogen interactions as a centerpiece to establish a crucial connection between the intricate details of marine Gram-positive pathogens and their fish hosts. Therefore, this review provides a holistic view and discusses the different stages of the host–pathogen interactions of marine Gram-positive pathogens. Gram-positive pathogens can invade fish tissues, evade the fish defenses, proliferate in the host system, and modulate the fish immune response. Marine Gram-positive pathogens have a unique set of virulence factors that facilitate adhesion (e.g., adhesins, hemagglutination activity, sortase, and capsules), invasion (e.g., toxins, hemolysins/cytolysins, the type VII secretion system, and immune-suppressive proteins), evasion (e.g., free radical quenching, actin-based motility, and the inhibition of phagolysosomal fusion), and proliferation and survival (e.g., heme utilization and siderophore-mediated iron acquisition systems) in the fish host. After infection, the fish host initiates specific innate and adaptive immune responses according to the extracellular or intracellular mechanism of infection. Although efforts have continued to be made in understanding the complex interplay at the host–pathogen interface, integrated omics-based investigations targeting host–pathogen–marine environment interactions hold promise for future research

    Evaluation of growth parameters and forage yield of Sugar Graze and Jumbo Plus sorghum hybrids under three different spacings during the <i>maha</i> season in the dry zone of Sri Lanka

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    A field experiment to evaluate the growth parameters and fodder yields of Sugar Graze and Jumbo Plus under occasional irrigation was conducted at 3 different plant spacings (30 × 15, 30 × 45 and 30 × 60 cm) on a red-yellow latosol in the dry zone of Sri Lanka from August 2015 to January 2016. The design was a randomized block with 3 replications. Initial harvesting of fodder was done 60 days after planting and 2 ratoon yields were assessed at successive 60-day intervals. Plant spacing was inversely related (P&lt;0.05) to dry matter (DM) yield with the narrowest spacing (30 × 15 cm) producing yields of 14.1 t DM/ha for Sugar Graze and 12.6 t DM/ha for Jumbo Plus at the initial harvest. Plant spacing also influenced leaf area, stem girth, root length and plant height in the initial harvest. Sugar Graze produced higher yields than Jumbo Plus at the initial and second ratoon harvests. Yields from ratoon crops were about 30% of those for the initial harvest. Further studies are needed to determine how these findings apply under the low-rainfall conditions of the yala season, and chemical analyses and animal feeding studies would provide valuable information on the nutritional value of the different forages.</p

    A Novel Marine Pathogen Isolated from Wild Cunners (Tautogolabrus adspersus): Comparative Genomics and Transcriptome Profiling of Pseudomonas sp. Strain J380

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    Cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) is a cleaner fish being considered for utilized in the North Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry to biocontrol sea lice infestations. However, bacterial diseases due to natural infections in wild cunners have yet to be described. This study reports the isolation of Pseudomonas sp. J380 from infected wild cunners and its phenotypic, genomic, and transcriptomic characterization. This Gram-negative motile rod-shaped bacterium showed a mesophilic (4–28 °C) and halotolerant growth. Under iron-limited conditions, Pseudomonas sp. J380 produced pyoverdine-type fluorescent siderophore. Koch’s postulates were verified in wild cunners by intraperitoneally (i.p.) injecting Pseudomonas sp. J380 at 4 × 103, 4 × 105, and 4 × 107 colony forming units (CFU)/dose. Host-range and comparative virulence were also investigated in lumpfish and Atlantic salmon i.p. injected with ~106 CFU/dose. Lumpfish were more susceptible compared to cunners, and Atlantic salmon was resistant to Pseudomonas sp. J380 infection. Cunner tissues were heavily colonized by Pseudomonas sp. J380 compared to lumpfish and Atlantic salmon suggesting that it might be an opportunistic pathogen in cunners. The genome of Pseudomonas sp. J380 was 6.26 megabases (Mb) with a guanine-cytosine (GC) content of 59.7%. Biochemical profiles, as well as comparative and phylogenomic analyses, suggested that Pseudomonas sp. J380 belongs to the P. fluorescens species complex. Transcriptome profiling under iron-limited vs. iron-enriched conditions identified 1159 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Cellular metabolic processes, such as ribosomal and energy production, and protein synthesis, were impeded by iron limitation. In contrast, genes involved in environmental adaptation mechanisms including two-component systems, histidine catabolism, and redox balance were transcriptionally up-regulated. Furthermore, iron limitation triggered the differential expression of genes encoding proteins associated with iron homeostasis. As the first report on a bacterial infection in cunners, the current study provides an overview of a new marine pathogen, Pseudomonas sp. J380

    Oral Immunization of Larvae and Juvenile of Lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) against Vibrio anguillarum Does Not Influence Systemic Immunity

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    Vibrio anguillarum, a marine bacterial pathogen that causes vibriosis, is a recurrent pathogen of lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus). Lumpfish is utilized as a cleaner fish in the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture in the North Atlantic region because of its ability to visualize and prey on the ectoparasite sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on the skin of Atlantic salmon, and its performance in cold environments. Lumpfish immunity is critical for optimal performance and sea lice removal. Oral vaccine delivery at a young age is the desired method for fish immunization because is easy to use, reduces fish stress during immunization, and can be applied on a large scale while the fish are at a young age. However, the efficacy of orally delivered inactivated vaccines is controversial. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a V. anguillarum bacterin orally delivered to cultured lumpfish and contrasted it to an intraperitoneal (i.p.) boost delivery. We bio-encapsulated V. anguillarum bacterin in Artemia salina live-feed and orally immunized lumpfish larvae. Vaccine intake and immune response were evaluated by microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis, respectively. qPCR analyses showed that the oral immunization of lumpfish larvae resulted in a subtle stimulation of canonical immune transcripts such as il8b, il10, igha, ighmc, ighb, ccl19, ccl20, cd8a, cd74, ifng, and lgp2. Nine months after oral immunization, one group was orally boosted, and a second group was both orally and i.p. boosted. Two months after boost immunization, lumpfish were challenged with V. anguillarum (7.8 × 105 CFU dose−1). Orally boosted fish showed a relative percentage of survival (RPS) of 2%. In contrast, the oral and i.p. boosted group showed a RPS of 75.5% (p &lt; 0.0001). V. anguillarum bacterin that had been orally delivered was not effective in lumpfish, which is in contrast to the i.p. delivered bacterin that protected the lumpfish against vibriosis. This suggests that orally administered V. anguillarum bacterin did not reach the deep lymphoid tissues, either in the larvae or juvenile fish, therefore oral immunization was not effective. Oral vaccines that are capable of crossing the epithelium and reach deep lymphoid tissues are required to confer an effective protection to lumpfish against V. anguillaru

    Role of riboflavin biosynthesis gene duplication and transporter in Aeromonas salmonicida virulence in marine teleost fish

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    ABSTRACTActive flavins derived from riboflavin (vitamin B2) are essential for life. Bacteria biosynthesize riboflavin or scavenge it through uptake systems, and both mechanisms may be present. Because of riboflavin’s critical importance, the redundancy of riboflavin biosynthetic pathway (RBP) genes might be present. Aeromonas salmonicida, the aetiological agent of furunculosis, is a pathogen of freshwater and marine fish, and its riboflavin pathways have not been studied. This study characterized the A. salmonicida riboflavin provision pathways. Homology search and transcriptional orchestration analysis showed that A. salmonicida has a main riboflavin biosynthetic operon that includes ribD, ribE1, ribBA, and ribH genes. Outside the main operon, putative duplicated genes ribA, ribB and ribE, and a ribN riboflavin importer encoding gene, were found. Monocistronic mRNA ribA, ribB and ribE2 encode for their corresponding functional riboflavin biosynthetic enzyme. While the product of ribBA conserved the RibB function, it lacked the RibA function. Likewise, ribN encodes a functional riboflavin importer. Transcriptomics analysis indicated that external riboflavin affected the expression of a relatively small number of genes, including a few involved in iron metabolism. ribB was downregulated in response to external riboflavin, suggesting negative feedback. Deletion of ribA, ribB and ribE1 showed that these genes are required for A. salmonicida riboflavin biosynthesis and virulence in Atlantic lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus). A. salmonicida riboflavin auxotrophic attenuated mutants conferred low protection to lumpfish against virulent A. salmonicida. Overall, A. salmonicida has multiple riboflavin endowment forms, and duplicated riboflavin provision genes are critical for A. salmonicida infection

    Comparative Genomics of Typical and Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida Complete Genomes Revealed New Insights into Pathogenesis Evolution

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    Aeromonas salmonicida is a global distributed Gram-negative teleost pathogen, affecting mainly salmonids in fresh and marine environments. A. salmonicida strains are classified as typical or atypical depending on their origin of isolation and phenotype. Five subspecies have been described, where A.&nbsp;salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the only typical subspecies, and the subsp. achromogenes, masoucida, smithia, and pectinolytica are considered atypical. Genomic differences between A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates and their relationship with the current classification have not been explored. Here, we sequenced and compared the complete closed genomes of four virulent strains to elucidate their molecular diversity and pathogenic evolution using the more accurate genomic information so far. Phenotypes, biochemical, and enzymatic profiles were determined. PacBio and MiSeq sequencing platforms were utilized for genome sequencing. Comparative genomics showed that atypical strains belong to the subsp. salmonicida, with 99.55% &plusmn; 0.25% identity with each other, and are closely related to typical strains. The typical strain A. salmonicida J223 is closely related to typical strains, with 99.17% identity with the A.&nbsp;salmonicida A449. Genomic differences between atypical and typical strains are strictly related to insertion sequences (ISs) activity. The absence and presence of genes encoding for virulence factors, transcriptional regulators, and non-coding RNAs are the most significant differences between typical and atypical strains that affect their phenotypes. Plasmidome plays an important role in A. salmonicida virulence and genome plasticity. Here, we determined that typical strains harbor a larger number of plasmids and virulence-related genes that contribute to its acute virulence. In contrast, atypical strains harbor a single, large plasmid and a smaller number of virulence genes, reflected by their less acute virulence and chronic infection. The relationship between phenotype and A. salmonicida subspecies&rsquo; taxonomy is not evident. Comparative genomic analysis based on completed genomes revealed that the subspecies classification is more of a reflection of the ecological niche occupied by bacteria than their divergences at the genomic level except for their accessory genome

    Table2_Nutritional immunomodulation of Atlantic salmon response to Renibacterium salmoninarum bacterin.docx

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    We investigated the immunomodulatory effect of varying levels of dietary ω6/ω3 fatty acids (FA) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) antibacterial response. Two groups were fed either high-18:3ω3 or high-18:2ω6 FA diets for 8 weeks, and a third group was fed for 4 weeks on the high-18:2ω6 diet followed by 4 weeks on the high-18:3ω3 diet and termed “switched-diet”. Following the second 4 weeks of feeding (i.e., at 8 weeks), head kidney tissues from all groups were sampled for FA analysis. Fish were then intraperitoneally injected with either a formalin-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum bacterin (5 × 107 cells mL−1) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS control), and head kidney tissues for gene expression analysis were sampled at 24 h post-injection. FA analysis showed that the head kidney profile reflected the dietary FA, especially for C18 FAs. The qPCR analyses of twenty-three genes showed that both the high-ω6 and high-ω3 groups had significant bacterin-dependent induction of some transcripts involved in lipid metabolism (ch25ha and lipe), pathogen recognition (clec12b and tlr5), and immune effectors (znrf1 and cish). In contrast, these transcripts did not significantly respond to the bacterin in the “switched-diet” group. Concurrently, biomarkers encoding proteins with putative roles in biotic inflammatory response (tnfrsf6b) and dendritic cell maturation (ccl13) were upregulated, and a chemokine receptor (cxcr1) was downregulated with the bacterin injection regardless of the experimental diets. On the other hand, an inflammatory regulator biomarker, bcl3, was only significantly upregulated in the high-ω3 fed group, and a C-type lectin family member (clec3a) was only significantly downregulated in the switched-diet group with the bacterin injection (compared with diet-matched PBS-injected controls). Transcript fold-change (FC: bacterin/PBS) showed that tlr5 was significantly over 2-fold higher in the high-18:2ω6 diet group compared with other diet groups. FC and FA associations highlighted the role of DGLA (20:3ω6; anti-inflammatory) and/or EPA (20:5ω3; anti-inflammatory) vs. ARA (20:4ω6; pro-inflammatory) as representative of the anti-inflammatory/pro-inflammatory balance between eicosanoid precursors. Also, the correlations revealed associations of FA proportions (% total FA) and FA ratios with several eicosanoid and immune receptor biomarkers (e.g., DGLA/ARA significant positive correlation with pgds, 5loxa, 5loxb, tlr5, and cxcr1). In summary, dietary FA profiles and/or regimens modulated the expression of some immune-relevant genes in Atlantic salmon injected with R. salmoninarum bacterin. The modulation of Atlantic salmon responses to bacterial pathogens and their associated antigens using high-ω6/high-ω3 diets warrants further investigation.</p

    Image3_Nutritional immunomodulation of Atlantic salmon response to Renibacterium salmoninarum bacterin.JPEG

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    We investigated the immunomodulatory effect of varying levels of dietary ω6/ω3 fatty acids (FA) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) antibacterial response. Two groups were fed either high-18:3ω3 or high-18:2ω6 FA diets for 8 weeks, and a third group was fed for 4 weeks on the high-18:2ω6 diet followed by 4 weeks on the high-18:3ω3 diet and termed “switched-diet”. Following the second 4 weeks of feeding (i.e., at 8 weeks), head kidney tissues from all groups were sampled for FA analysis. Fish were then intraperitoneally injected with either a formalin-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum bacterin (5 × 107 cells mL−1) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS control), and head kidney tissues for gene expression analysis were sampled at 24 h post-injection. FA analysis showed that the head kidney profile reflected the dietary FA, especially for C18 FAs. The qPCR analyses of twenty-three genes showed that both the high-ω6 and high-ω3 groups had significant bacterin-dependent induction of some transcripts involved in lipid metabolism (ch25ha and lipe), pathogen recognition (clec12b and tlr5), and immune effectors (znrf1 and cish). In contrast, these transcripts did not significantly respond to the bacterin in the “switched-diet” group. Concurrently, biomarkers encoding proteins with putative roles in biotic inflammatory response (tnfrsf6b) and dendritic cell maturation (ccl13) were upregulated, and a chemokine receptor (cxcr1) was downregulated with the bacterin injection regardless of the experimental diets. On the other hand, an inflammatory regulator biomarker, bcl3, was only significantly upregulated in the high-ω3 fed group, and a C-type lectin family member (clec3a) was only significantly downregulated in the switched-diet group with the bacterin injection (compared with diet-matched PBS-injected controls). Transcript fold-change (FC: bacterin/PBS) showed that tlr5 was significantly over 2-fold higher in the high-18:2ω6 diet group compared with other diet groups. FC and FA associations highlighted the role of DGLA (20:3ω6; anti-inflammatory) and/or EPA (20:5ω3; anti-inflammatory) vs. ARA (20:4ω6; pro-inflammatory) as representative of the anti-inflammatory/pro-inflammatory balance between eicosanoid precursors. Also, the correlations revealed associations of FA proportions (% total FA) and FA ratios with several eicosanoid and immune receptor biomarkers (e.g., DGLA/ARA significant positive correlation with pgds, 5loxa, 5loxb, tlr5, and cxcr1). In summary, dietary FA profiles and/or regimens modulated the expression of some immune-relevant genes in Atlantic salmon injected with R. salmoninarum bacterin. The modulation of Atlantic salmon responses to bacterial pathogens and their associated antigens using high-ω6/high-ω3 diets warrants further investigation.</p

    Image2_Nutritional immunomodulation of Atlantic salmon response to Renibacterium salmoninarum bacterin.JPEG

    No full text
    We investigated the immunomodulatory effect of varying levels of dietary ω6/ω3 fatty acids (FA) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) antibacterial response. Two groups were fed either high-18:3ω3 or high-18:2ω6 FA diets for 8 weeks, and a third group was fed for 4 weeks on the high-18:2ω6 diet followed by 4 weeks on the high-18:3ω3 diet and termed “switched-diet”. Following the second 4 weeks of feeding (i.e., at 8 weeks), head kidney tissues from all groups were sampled for FA analysis. Fish were then intraperitoneally injected with either a formalin-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum bacterin (5 × 107 cells mL−1) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS control), and head kidney tissues for gene expression analysis were sampled at 24 h post-injection. FA analysis showed that the head kidney profile reflected the dietary FA, especially for C18 FAs. The qPCR analyses of twenty-three genes showed that both the high-ω6 and high-ω3 groups had significant bacterin-dependent induction of some transcripts involved in lipid metabolism (ch25ha and lipe), pathogen recognition (clec12b and tlr5), and immune effectors (znrf1 and cish). In contrast, these transcripts did not significantly respond to the bacterin in the “switched-diet” group. Concurrently, biomarkers encoding proteins with putative roles in biotic inflammatory response (tnfrsf6b) and dendritic cell maturation (ccl13) were upregulated, and a chemokine receptor (cxcr1) was downregulated with the bacterin injection regardless of the experimental diets. On the other hand, an inflammatory regulator biomarker, bcl3, was only significantly upregulated in the high-ω3 fed group, and a C-type lectin family member (clec3a) was only significantly downregulated in the switched-diet group with the bacterin injection (compared with diet-matched PBS-injected controls). Transcript fold-change (FC: bacterin/PBS) showed that tlr5 was significantly over 2-fold higher in the high-18:2ω6 diet group compared with other diet groups. FC and FA associations highlighted the role of DGLA (20:3ω6; anti-inflammatory) and/or EPA (20:5ω3; anti-inflammatory) vs. ARA (20:4ω6; pro-inflammatory) as representative of the anti-inflammatory/pro-inflammatory balance between eicosanoid precursors. Also, the correlations revealed associations of FA proportions (% total FA) and FA ratios with several eicosanoid and immune receptor biomarkers (e.g., DGLA/ARA significant positive correlation with pgds, 5loxa, 5loxb, tlr5, and cxcr1). In summary, dietary FA profiles and/or regimens modulated the expression of some immune-relevant genes in Atlantic salmon injected with R. salmoninarum bacterin. The modulation of Atlantic salmon responses to bacterial pathogens and their associated antigens using high-ω6/high-ω3 diets warrants further investigation.</p
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