12 research outputs found

    Re-Imagining Marginalised Tudor Voices: Working Women, Print Culture and the Rejection of Female Silence

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    Though the recent work of historians has begun to reveal the rich and complex lives of working women (Hubbard, 2012, p.1), their narrative potential has mostly been ignored by writers of modern historical fiction. Working women are infrequently protagonists and when they do appear, their domesticity is emphasised; those Tudor women who traversed the gender divide to attain employment in male-dominated fields are almost entirely marginalised. This project seeks to address this gap by offering a novel, Carew, that foregrounds the experiences of a working woman, the fictional Hannah Carew, whose character is inspired by the printer Elisabeth Pickering. It conceptualises how a Tudor woman might have experienced Tudor societal expectations, using the printing press to give physical form to gender boundaries. The novel also seeks to creatively consider notions of ‘history’ and how ‘histories’ are constructed and, in so doing, explore possible reasons why working women’s voices have been marginalised. The inclusion of epigraphs establish history as a contested space, while the composition of the First Examination of Anne Askew, an account of the Tudor martyr’s first trial for heresy, is used to explore how historians make use of literary techniques. The project also seeks to challenge, subvert and resist common representations of working women in historical fiction who are often subordinated by their upper-class counterparts

    Gender differentiated preferences for a community-based conservation initiative

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    Community-based conservation (CBC) aims to benefit local people as well as to achieve conservation goals, but has been criticised for taking a simplistic view of "community" and failing to recognise differences in the preferences and motivations of community members. We explore this heterogeneity in the context of Kenya's conservancies, focussing on the livelihood preferences of men and women living adjacent to the Maasai Mara National Reserve. Using a discrete choice experiment we quantify the preferences of local community members for key components of their livelihoods and conservancy design, differentiating between men and women and existing conservancy members and non-members. While Maasai preference for pastoralism remains strong, non-livestock-based livelihood activities are also highly valued and there was substantial differentiation in preferences between individuals. Involvement with conservancies was generally perceived to be positive, but only if households were able to retain some land for other purposes. Women placed greater value on conservancy membership, but substantially less value on wage income, while existing conservancy members valued both conservancy membership and livestock more highly than did non-members. Our findings suggest that conservancies can make a positive contribution to livelihoods, but care must be taken to ensure that they do not unintentionally disadvantage any groups. We argue that conservation should pay greater attention to individuallevel differences in preferences when designing interventions in order to achieve fairer and more sustainable outcomes for members of local communities

    Genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in a UK university identifies dynamics of transmission

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    AbstractUnderstanding SARS-CoV-2 transmission in higher education settings is important to limit spread between students, and into at-risk populations. In this study, we sequenced 482 SARS-CoV-2 isolates from the University of Cambridge from 5 October to 6 December 2020. We perform a detailed phylogenetic comparison with 972 isolates from the surrounding community, complemented with epidemiological and contact tracing data, to determine transmission dynamics. We observe limited viral introductions into the university; the majority of student cases were linked to a single genetic cluster, likely following social gatherings at a venue outside the university. We identify considerable onward transmission associated with student accommodation and courses; this was effectively contained using local infection control measures and following a national lockdown. Transmission clusters were largely segregated within the university or the community. Our study highlights key determinants of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and effective interventions in a higher education setting that will inform public health policy during pandemics.</jats:p

    Distribution and diversity of alpine lichens: biotic and abiotic factors influencing alpine lichen communities in the northeast Olympic and North Cascade Mountains

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    Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Washington, 1998Alpine lichens from six specific sites in the northeastern Olympic and North Cascade Mountains were studied. Sites included Elk Mountain, Deer Park, and Buckhorn cirque from the Olympic Mountains; and Skyline Divide, Slate Peak and the Tatie Peak area of the North Cascade Mountains. Lichens and vascular plants, and bryophytes were inventoried from each site. Over 170 species of lichen were identified, representing more than 70 genera. Of these, 65% were macrolichens and 35% were microlichens. For lichen percent cover from all sites, 2% were foliose, 18% were fruticose and 8% were crustose. Diversity analyses showed that drier exposed fell field sites with south and southwestern aspects had a higher species richness and diversity index. Lichens found on eastern and northeastern slopes had higher snow accumulations during the winter months, were slow to lose their snow in the summer, and mesic due to the snow melt run-off. Ericaceous plants dominated these areas affecting soil pH, other plant associations, and the diversity of lichens. Correlations and ordination analyses were employed to determine the biotic and abiotic factors influencing lichen distributions. Abiotic factors included slope, elevation, aspect, soil pH, substrate stability, substrate type, and moisture class. Biotic factors included the percent vegetation cover and plant species composition found within each quadrat. DCA and CCA analyses displayed similar distributions of lichens within the ordinations. Abiotic factors showed a strong relationship between slope, aspect, and substrate type. Substrate appeared to be a leading factor influencing lichen communities within the sites. Saxicolous lichen communities were influenced by the parent material of the rock and its pH. Vegetation significantly influenced the type of lichens on the sites. Dry tundra locations exhibited a positive correlation between lichen cover and plant cover. At the mesic sites, there was a negative relationship between plant cover and lichen cover. Species of plants associated with lichens were not as important as the assemblage of plants found at each site. Plants were converted into functional groups to represent the types of "structural framework" they provide for the lichens. Many of the fruticose lichens form associations with these functional groups of plants

    Acroscyphus (Caliciaceae) in North America

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    Relationships between academic literacy support, student retention and academic performance

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    Retention and the academic success of nursing students remains a high priority in Australian and global higher education. This study examines an embedded academic support strategy, provided by Professional Communication Academic Literacy (PCAL) support staff, and undergraduate Bachelor of Nursing student uptake of the support. It reports on the profile of those who sought support, and the relationships between student support, retention and academic performance. A total of 11 290 PCAL consultations were recorded during a 17-month period from January 2016, with these consultations initiated by 2827 individual students. Among the undergraduate nursing students (n = 4472), those who sought PCAL support were over 7 times more likely (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 7.81, 95% CI: 6.18 to 9.86) to continue in the nursing program, taking into consideration age and enrolment category of students. Among students who continued or are continuing in the program, those who did not seek PCAL support had a lower grade point average (GPA) (mean: 3.9) compared to those who sought PCAL support between 1 and 3 times (mean: 4.3), and those who sought PCAL support on more than 3 occasions had the highest GPA (mean: 4.4), suggesting that frequency of consultations influenced academic success and retention

    White matter microstructure in the executive network associated with aggression in healthy adolescents and young adults

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    Predicting which individuals may engage in aggressive behavior is of interest in today’s society; however, there is little data on the neural basis of aggression in healthy individuals. Here, we tested whether regional differences in white matter (WM) microstructure were associated with later reports of aggressive tendencies. We recontacted healthy young adults an average of 3 years after they underwent research MRI scans. Via electronic survey, we administered the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire. We divided aggression into Aggressive Thoughts (Anger and Hostility subscales) and Aggressive Acts (Verbal and Physical subscales) and used Tract-Based Spatial Statistics to test the relationship of those measures to WM microstructure. In 45 individuals age 15–30 at baseline, we observed significant relationships between Aggressive Acts and fractional anisotropy (FA) in a parietal region consistent with the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). As the SLF has an established relationship to executive function, we performed an exploratory analysis in a subset of individuals with working memory data. Decreased FA in executive network regions, as well as working memory performance, were associated with later self-reported aggressive tendencies. This has implications for our healthy behavior understanding of as well as that of patient populations known to have executive dysfunction
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