1,710 research outputs found

    Arcsecond-resolution 12CO mapping of the yellow hypergiants IRC +10420 and AFGL 2343

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    IRC +10420 and AFGL 2343 are the unique, known yellow hypergiants (YHGs) presenting a heavy circumstellar envelope (CSE). We aim to study the morphology, exceptional kinematics, and excitation conditions of their CSEs, and the implications for mass-loss processes. We have mapped the 12CO J=2-1 and 1-0 emission in these YHGs with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer and the 30m telescope. We developed LVG models in order to analyze their circumstellar characteristics. The maps show that the overall shape of both CSEs is approximately spherical, although they also reveal several aspherical features. The CSE around IRC +10420 shows a rounded extended halo surrounding a bright inner region, with both components presenting aspherical characteristics. It presents a brightness minimum at the center. The envelope around AFGL 2343 is a detached shell, showing spherical symmetry and clumpiness at a level of about 15% of the maximum brightness. The envelopes expand isotropically at about 35 km/s, about two or three times faster than typical CSEs around AGB stars. High temperatures (~ 200 K) are derived for the innermost regions in IRC +10420, while denser and cooler (~ 30 K) gas is found in AFGL 2343. The mass-loss processes in these YHGs have been found to be similar. The deduced mass-loss rates (~ 10E-4 - 10E-3 Msun/yr) are much higher than those obtained in AGB stars, and they present significant variations on time scales of ~ 1000 yr

    The Signature of Primordial Grain Growth in the Polarized Light of the AU Mic Debris Disk

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    We have used the Hubble Space Telescope/ACS coronagraph to make polarization maps of the AU Mic debris disk. The fractional linear polarization rises monotonically from about 0.05 to 0.4 between 20 and 80 AU. The polarization is perpendicular to the disk, indicating that the scattered light originates from micron sized grains in an optically thin disk. Disk models, which simultaneously fit the surface brightness and polarization, show that the inner disk (< 40-50 AU) is depleted of micron-sized dust by a factor of more than 300, which means that the disk is collision dominated. The grains have high maximum linear polarization and strong forward scattering. Spherical grains composed of conventional materials cannot reproduce these optical properties. A Mie/Maxwell-Garnett analysis implicates highly porous (91-94%) particles. In the inner Solar System, porous particles form in cometary dust, where the sublimation of ices leaves a "bird's nest" of refractory organic and silicate material. In AU Mic, the grain porosity may be primordial, because the dust "birth ring" lies beyond the ice sublimation point. The observed porosities span the range of values implied by laboratory studies of particle coagulation by ballistic cluster-cluster aggregation. To avoid compactification, the upper size limit for the parent bodies is in the decimeter range, in agreement with theoretical predictions based on collisional lifetime arguments. Consequently, AU Mic may exhibit the signature of the primordial agglomeration process whereby interstellar grains first assembled to form macroscopic objects.Comment: 12 pages, 8 figures, ApJ, in pres

    An equatorial wind from the massive young stellar object S140 IRS 1

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    The discovery of the second equatorial ionized stellar wind from a massive young stellar object is reported. High resolution radio continuum maps of S140 IRS 1 reveal a highly elongated source that is perpendicular to the larger scale bipolar molecular outflow. This picture is confirmed by location of a small scale monopolar near-IR reflection nebula at the base of the blueshifted lobe. A second epoch of observations over a five year baseline show little ordered outward proper motion of clumps as would have been expected for a jet. A third epoch, taken only 50 days after the second, did show significant changes in the radio morphology. These radio properties can all be understood in the context of an equatorial wind driven by radiation pressure from the central star and inner disc acting on the gas in the surface layers of the disc as proposed by Drew et al. (1998). This equatorial wind system is briefly compared with the one in S106IR, and contrasted with other massive young stellar objects that drive ionized jets.Comment: 19 pages, 5 figures, accepted by ApJ, minor changes in light of referees repor

    UV Circular Polarisation in Star Formation Regions : The Origin of Homochirality?

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    Ultraviolet circularly polarised light has been suggested as the initial cause of the homochirality of organic molecules in terrestrial organisms, via enantiomeric selection of prebiotic molecules by asymmetric photolysis. We present a theoretical investigation of mechanisms by which ultraviolet circular polarisation may be produced in star formation regions. In the scenarios considered here, light scattering produces only a small percentage of net circular polarisation at any point in space, due to the forward throwing nature of the phase function in the ultraviolet. By contrast, dichroic extinction can produce a fairly high percentage of net circular polarisation (∌10%) and may therefore play a key role in producing an enantiomeric excessPeer reviewe

    The evolutionary status of the semiregular variable QYSge

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    Repeated spectroscopic observations made with the 6m telescope of yielded new data on the radial-velocity variability of the anomalous yellow supergiant QYSge. The strongest and most peculiar feature in its spectrum is the complex profile of NaI D lines, which contains a narrow and a very wide emission components. The wide emission component can be seen to extend from -170 to +120 km/s, and at its central part it is cut by an absorption feature, which, in turn, is split into two subcomponents by a narrow (16km/s at r=2.5) emission peak. An analysis of all the Vr values leads us to adopt for the star a systemic velocity of Vr=-21.1 km/s, which corresponds to the position of the narrow emission component of NaI. The locations of emission-line features of NaI D lines are invariable, which point to their formation in regions that are external to the supergiant's photosphere. Differential line shifts of about 10km/s are revealed. The absorption lines in the spectrum of QYSge have a substantial width of FWHM~45 km/s. The method of model atmospheres is used to determine the following parameters: Teff=6250K, lg g=2.0, and microturbulence Vt=4.5km/s. The metallicity of the star is found to be somewhat higher than the solar one with an average overabundance of iron-peak elements of [Met/H]=+0.20. The star is found to be slightly overabundant in carbon and nitrogen, [C/Fe]=+0.25, [N/Fe]=+0.27. The alpha-process elements Mg, Si, and Ca are slightly overabundant [alpha/H]=+0.12. The strong sodium excess, [Na/Fe]=+0.75, is likely to be due to the dredge-up of the matter processed in the NeNa cycle. Heavy elements of the s-process are underabundant relative to the Sun. On the whole, the observed properties of QYSge do not give grounds for including this star into the group of RCrB or RVTau-type type objects.Comment: 29 pages, 8 figures, 4 tables; accepted by Astrophys. Bulleti

    Cometary Dust in the Debris Disks of HD 31648 and HD 163296: Two ``Baby'' beta Pics

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    The debris disks surrounding the pre-main sequence stars HD 31648 and HD 163296 were observed spectroscopically between 3 and 14 microns. Both possess a silicate emission feature at 10 microns which resembles that of the star beta Pictoris and those observed in solar system comets. The structure of the band is consistent with a mixture of olivine and pyroxene material, plus an underlying continuum of unspecified origin. The similarity in both size and structure of the silicate band suggests that the material in these systems had a processing history similar to that in our own solar system prior to the time that the grains were incorporated into comets.Comment: 17 pages, AASTeX, 5 eps figures, accepted for publication in Ap.

    Candidate knowledge? Exploring epistemic claims in scientific writing:a corpus-driven approach

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    In this article I argue that the study of the linguistic aspects of epistemology has become unhelpfully focused on the corpus-based study of hedging and that a corpus-driven approach can help to improve upon this. Through focusing on a corpus of texts from one discourse community (that of genetics) and identifying frequent tri-lexical clusters containing highly frequent lexical items identified as keywords, I undertake an inductive analysis identifying patterns of epistemic significance. Several of these patterns are shown to be hedging devices and the whole corpus frequencies of the most salient of these, candidate and putative, are then compared to the whole corpus frequencies for comparable wordforms and clusters of epistemic significance. Finally I interviewed a ‘friendly geneticist’ in order to check my interpretation of some of the terms used and to get an expert interpretation of the overall findings. In summary I argue that the highly unexpected patterns of hedging found in genetics demonstrate the value of adopting a corpus-driven approach and constitute an advance in our current understanding of how to approach the relationship between language and epistemology

    Iron biogeochemistry across marine systems progress from the past decade

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    Based on an international workshop (Gothenburg, 14–16 May 2008), this review article aims to combine interdisciplinary knowledge from coastal and open ocean research on iron biogeochemistry. The major scientific findings of the past decade are structured into sections on natural and artificial iron fertilization, iron inputs into coastal and estuarine systems, colloidal iron and organic matter, and biological processes. Potential effects of global climate change, particularly ocean acidification, on iron biogeochemistry are discussed. The findings are synthesized into recommendations for future research areas

    V2324Cyg - an F-type star with fast wind

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    For the first time high-resolution optical spectroscopy of the variable star V2324Cyg associated with the IR-source IRAS20572+4919 is made. More than 200 absorption features (mostly FeII, TiII, CrII, YII, BaII, and YII) are identified within the wavelength interval 4549-7880AA. The spectral type and rotation velocity of the star are found to be F0III and Vsini=69km/s, respectively. HI and NaID lines have complex PCyg-type profiles with an emission component. Neither systematic trend of radial velocity Vr with line depth Ro nor temporal variability of Vr have been found. We determined the average heliocentric radial velocity Vr=-16.8\pm 0.6km/s. The radial velocities inferred from the cores of the absorption components of the HÎČ\beta and NaI wind lines vary from -140 to -225km/s (and the expansion velocities of the corresponding layers, from about 120 to 210km/s). The maximum expansion velocity is found for the blue component of the split Hα\alpha absorption: 450km/s for December 12, 1995. The model atmospheres method is used to determine the star's parameters: Teff=7500K, log g=2.0, Οt\xi_t=6.0km/s, and metallicity, which is equal to the solar value. The main peculiarity of the chemical abundances pattern is the overabundance of lithium and sodium. The results cast some doubt on the classification of V2324Cyg as a post-AGB star.Comment: 28 pages, 6 figure

    Pulsations and Long-Term Light Variability of Three Candidates to Protoplanetary Nebulae

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    We present new photometric data and analysis of the long-duration UBV photoelectric observations for three candidates to protoplanetary objects - F-supergiants with IR-excesses located at large galactic latitudes, IRAS 18095+2704, IRAS 19386+0155, and IRAS 19500-1709. All three stars have revealed quasiperiodic low-amplitude variabilities caused by pulsations observed against the long-term trends of brightnesses. For IRAS 18095+2704=V887 Her we have found a pulsation period of 109 days and a linear trend of brightness under the constant colours if being averaged over the year timescale. The light curve of IRAS 19386+0155=V1648 Aql over 2000-2008 can be approximated by a wave with a main period of 102 days which is modulated by close frequency, with a period of 98 days, that results in brightness oscillations with a variable amplitude. V1648 Aql has also shown synchronous reddening together with a persistent rise of brightness in the V-band. IRAS 19500-1709=V5112 Sgr experiences irregular pulsations with the periods of 39 and 47 days. The long-term component of the variability of V5112 Sgr may be related to the binary character of this star.Comment: 11 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in Pis'ma Astron. Z
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