2,014 research outputs found

    Addressing the Multi-Channel Inverse Problem at High Energy Colliders: A Model Independent Approach to the Search for New Physics with Trileptons

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    We describe a method for interpreting trilepton searches at high energy colliders in a model-independent fashion and apply it to the recent searches at the Tevatron. The key step is to recognize that the trilepton signature is comprised of four experimentally very different channels defined by the number of tau-leptons in the trilepton state. Contributions from these multiple channels to the overall experimental sensitivity (cross section times branching ratio) are model-independent and can be parametrized in terms of relevant new particle masses. Given the trileptonic branching ratios of a specific model, these experimentally obtained multichannel sensitivities can be combined to obtain a cross section measurement that can be used to confront the model with data. Our model-independent results are more widely applicable than the current Tevatron trilepton results which are stated exclusively in terms of mSUGRA parameters of supersymmetry. The technique presented here can be expanded beyond trilepton searches to the more general "inverse problem" of experimentally discriminating between competing models that seek to explain new physics discovered in multiple channels.Comment: 17 pages, 7 figures Changed content cosmetic changes for submission to JHE

    Is Money Speech ?

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    Diagnostic Nodes of Patient Selection for Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Among Colorectal Cancer Patients: A Swiss National Multicenter Survey.

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    The management of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) with peritoneal metastases is challenging, and the roles of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) are unclear and debated among experts. The experts of the Swiss Peritoneal Cancer Group were contacted and agreed to participate in this analysis. Experts from 9 centers in Switzerland provided their decision algorithms for CRS/HIPEC for patients with or at high risk for peritoneal metastases from CRC. Their responses were converted into decision trees on the basis of objective consensus methodology. The decision trees were used as a basis to identify consensus and discrepancies. The final treatment algorithms included a total of 5 decision criteria (age, Peritoneal Cancer Index [PCI], extraperitoneal metastases, Peritoneal Surface Disease Severity Score, and various risk factors [RF]) and 2 treatment options (HIPEC, yes or no). HIPEC was never recommended for patients without peritoneal metastases in the absence of RF for peritoneal metastases. For patients with a PCI ‚ȧ15 without organ metastases, all centers recommended CRS/HIPEC. There was also a consensus not to perform CRS/HIPEC in elderly patients (80 years and older), those with a PCI >20, and those with unresectable metastases. For patients with a PCI = 16 to 20, there was no consensus. Multiple decision criteria relevant to all participating centers were identified. Because patient selection for CRS/HIPEC remains difficult, uniform criteria for the term "high risk" for peritoneal metastases and systemic metastases are helpful. Future trials and guidelines should take these criteria into account

    Legal determinants of external finance revisited : the inverse relationship between investor protection and societal well-being

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    This paper investigates relationships between corporate governance traditions and quality of life as measured by a number of widely reported indicators. It provides an empirical analysis of indicators of societal health in developed economies using a classification based on legal traditions. Arguably the most widely cited work in the corporate governance literature has been the collection of papers by La Porta et al. which has shown, inter alia, statistically significant relationships between legal traditions and various proxies for investor protection. We show statistically significant relationships between legal traditions and various proxies for societal health. Our comparative evidence suggests that the interests of investors may not be congruent with the interests of wider society, and that the criteria for judging the effectiveness of approaches to corporate governance should not be restricted to financial metrics

    Single hadron response measurement and calorimeter jet energy scale uncertainty with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

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    The uncertainty on the calorimeter energy response to jets of particles is derived for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). First, the calorimeter response to single isolated charged hadrons is measured and compared to the Monte Carlo simulation using proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of sqrt(s) = 900 GeV and 7 TeV collected during 2009 and 2010. Then, using the decay of K_s and Lambda particles, the calorimeter response to specific types of particles (positively and negatively charged pions, protons, and anti-protons) is measured and compared to the Monte Carlo predictions. Finally, the jet energy scale uncertainty is determined by propagating the response uncertainty for single charged and neutral particles to jets. The response uncertainty is 2-5% for central isolated hadrons and 1-3% for the final calorimeter jet energy scale.Comment: 24 pages plus author list (36 pages total), 23 figures, 1 table, submitted to European Physical Journal

    Measurement of the cross-section and charge asymmetry of WW bosons produced in proton-proton collisions at s=8\sqrt{s}=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector