533 research outputs found

    Prophylaxis in von Willebrand disease.

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    Von Willebrand disease (VWD), the most common hereditary bleeding disorder, is divided into three types depending on the quantitative (type 1 and 3) or qualitative (type 2) abnormality of von Willebrand factor (VWF). About 70-80% of VWD patients can be treated with the synthetic product desmopressin, while the others necessitate factor VIII/VWF concentrates. In addition to the treatment of bleeding episodes, therapeutic regimens include short- or long-term prophylaxis. While the literature data on short-term prophylaxis in VWD are consistent and clearly show the safety and efficacy of such a therapeutic approach, little evidence is available regarding long-term prophylaxis, and although the preliminary results are encouraging, they need to be validated by large prospective studies

    NAFLD in Some Common Endocrine Diseases: Prevalence, Pathophysiology, and Principles of Diagnosis and Management

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    Secondary nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) defines those complex pathophysiological and clinical consequences that ensue when the liver becomes an ectopic site of lipid storage owing to reasons other than its mutual association with the metabolic syndrome. Disorders affecting gonadal hormones, thyroid hormones, or growth hormones (GH) may cause secondary forms of NAFLD, which exhibit specific pathophysiologic features and, in theory, the possibility to receive an effective treatment. Here, we critically discuss epidemiological and pathophysiological features, as well as principles of diagnosis and management of some common endocrine diseases, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, and GH deficiency. Collectively, these forms of NAFLD secondary to specific endocrine derangements may be envisaged as a naturally occurring disease model of NAFLD in humans. Improved understanding of such endocrine secondary forms of NAFLD promises to disclose novel clinical associations and innovative therapeutic approaches, which may potentially be applied also to selected cases of primary NAFLD

    NAFLD: Is There Anything New under the Sun?

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    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an "umbrella" definition that encompasses a spectrum of histological liver changes ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with/without fibrosis, "cryptogenic" cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), occurring in a dysmetabolic milieu, though in the absence of excessive alcohol consumption and other competing etiologies of chronic liver disease [1].[...]

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: spotlight on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

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    The incidence of both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and multiple cancer types are rapidly increasing worldwide. Several studies documented that T2DM is closely associated with an increased incidence of cancer. However, while some methodological considerations preclude a definitive association between T2DM and the risk of certain cancers, the relationship between T2DM and increased risk of incident hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains significant even after adjustment for detection bias and reverse causation, indicating that such association is clinically reliable and robust. In addition, a number of observational studies also showed that T2DM is associated with higher mortality among persons with HCC. Some recent meta-analyses suggested that treatment with metformin may be associated with a lower risk of HCC, and may also beneficially influence HCC prognosis, whereas treatment with sulphonylureas or insulin seems to be related to a higher HCC risk. The underlying biological mechanisms linking T2DM and HCC are complex and difficult to elucidate, but the existence of close inter-connections among T2DM, obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induces hepatic/systemic insulin resistance and causes the release of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines, vasoactive factors and pro-oxidant molecules, which are all potentially implicated in the development and progression of HCC. In this clinical review, we discuss the epidemiological evidence linking T2DM to the risk of HCC. Moreover, we also briefly discuss the putative underlying mechanisms linking T2DM, NAFLD and HCC, and the potential effect of certain hypoglycemic agents on the risk of developing HCC

    Risk of chronic kidney disease in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Is there a link?

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    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a growing public health problem worldwide. Increasing recognition of the importance of NAFLD and its association with the features of the metabolic syndrome has stimulated an interest in its putative role in the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Accumulating evidence suggests that NAFLD and CKD share many important cardio-metabolic risk factors and common pathogenetic mechanisms and that NAFLD is associated with an increased prevalence and incidence of CKD. This association appears to be independent of obesity, hypertension, and other potentially confounding factors, and it occurs both in patients without diabetes and in those with diabetes. Although further research is needed to establish a definitive conclusion, these observations raise the possibility that NAFLD is not only a marker of CKD but also might play a part in the pathogenesis of CKD, possibly through the systemic release of several pro-inflammatory/pro-coagulant mediators from the steatotic/inflamed liver or through the contribution of NAFLD itself to insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia. However, given the heterogeneity and small number of observational longitudinal studies, further research is urgently required to corroborate the prognostic significance of NAFLD for the incidence of CKD, and to further elucidate the complex and intertwined mechanisms that link NAFLD and CKD. If confirmed in future large-scale prospective studies, the potential adverse impact of NAFLD on kidney disease progression will deserve particular attention, especially with respect to the implications for screening and surveillance strategies in the growing number of patients with NAFLD

    Relationship between ABO blood group and von Willebrand factor levels: from biology to clinical implications

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    Although a number of studies have demonstrated the influence of ABO blood group on plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF), the nature of this association and its clinical importance is still largely unknown

    Fatty liver is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease-Evidence from three different disease models: NAFLD, HCV and HIV

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    Fatty liver, which frequently coexists with necroinflammatory and fibrotic changes, may occur in the setting of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic infections due to either hepatitis C virus (HCV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These three pathologic conditions are associated with an increased prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this multidisciplinary clinical review, we aim to discuss the ever-expanding wealth of clinical and epidemiological evidence supporting a key role of fatty liver in the development of T2D and CVD in patients with NAFLD and in those with HCV or HIV infections. For each of these three common diseases, the epidemiological features, pathophysiologic mechanisms and clinical implications of the presence of fatty liver in predicting the risk of incident T2D and CVD are examined in depth. Collectively, the data discussed in this updated review, which follows an innovative comparative approach, further reinforce the conclusion that the presence of fatty/inflamed/fibrotic liver might be a shared important determinant for the development of T2D and CVD in patients with NAFLD, HCV or HIV. This review may also open new avenues in the clinical and research arenas and paves the way for the planning of future, well-designed prospective and intervention studies

    "Not all forms of NAFLD were created equal". Do metabolic syndrome-related NAFLD and PNPLA3-related NAFLD exert a variable impact on the risk of early carotid atherosclerosis?

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    On this background of evidence, the results of the study by Di Costanzo et al. [8] provide further support to the view that the aetiology of NAFLD is multifactorial and this disease may be caused by common genetic variants. One of these, the PNPLA-3 variant, is associated with higher liver fat content and increased risk of NASH, but is not systematically associated with insulin resistance and MetS traits [4,5]. This study adds a further critical piece of information by suggesting that the MetS-related NAFLD and the PNPLA3-related NAFLD may differentially affect the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis and perhaps of clinical CVD [8]. However, it does not detract from the notion that NAFLD, especially NASH with varying degrees of fibrosis, may directly contribute to the development and progression of CVD [2,3,9], because genetic NAFLD is a subtly different disease and less than 15% of European patients with NAFLD have the PNPLA3 GG genotype [4,5]. Furthermore, as previously mentioned, the few observational studies that have assessed the association between the PNPLA3 rs738409 gene polymorphism and risk of atherosclerosis have provided conflicting results (as summarized in Table 1
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