3,163 research outputs found

    Parallel waveform extraction algorithms for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Real-Time Analysis

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    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation observatory for the study of very high-energy gamma rays from about 20 GeV up to 300 TeV. Thanks to the large effective area and field of view, the CTA observatory will be characterized by an unprecedented sensitivity to transient flaring gamma-ray phenomena compared to both current ground (e.g. MAGIC, VERITAS, H.E.S.S.) and space (e.g. Fermi) gamma-ray telescopes. In order to trigger the astrophysics community for follow-up observations, or being able to quickly respond to external science alerts, a fast analysis pipeline is crucial. This will be accomplished by means of a Real-Time Analysis (RTA) pipeline, a fast and automated science alert trigger system, becoming a key system of the CTA observatory. Among the CTA design key requirements to the RTA system, the most challenging is the generation of alerts within 30 seconds from the last acquired event, while obtaining a flux sensitivity not worse than the one of the final analysis by more than a factor of 3. A dedicated software and hardware architecture for the RTA pipeline must be designed and tested. We present comparison of OpenCL solutions using different kind of devices like CPUs, Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) and Field Programmable Array (FPGA) cards for the Real-Time data reduction of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) triggered data.Comment: In Proceedings of the 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC2015), The Hague, The Netherlands. All CTA contributions at arXiv:1508.0589

    The Relationship between Catalyst Precursors and Chain End Groups in Homogeneous Propene Polymerization Catalysis

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    The chain transfer to monomer reactions promoted by primary and secondary growing chains in the propene polymerization promoted by ansa-zirconocenes and postmetallocene precursors are studied by using DFT methods. From the theoretical results it comes out that the prevalence of propene insertion over b-hydrogen transfer to the monomer decreases drastically in the presence of a secondary chain. Furthermore, we explained the reason why C2-symmetric metallocene catalysts promote the selective formation of cis but-2-enyls end group after a 2,1 inserted unit whereas for octahedral bis(phenoxy- imine)titanium-based catalysts, chain release promotes exclusively the formation of allyl terminated chain end. These results might be useful to design ligand precursors able to obtain not only high Mn PP polymers but also tuned chain end groups to build new polymer architectures. Overall, a more general picture of the enantioselectivity of the chain transfer to monomer processes is reported

    Polymorphism and structural disorder in melt-crystallized and fiber samples of syndiotactic copolymers of propane with 1-butene

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    The structural characterization of melt-crystallized samples and oriented fibers of syndiotactic copolymers between propene and 1-butene is reported. Melt-crystallized samples of copolymers are crystallized in the form I of syndiotactic polypropylene (s-PP) up to a Content of 1-butene of 60-70 mol %, although disorder in the alternation of right- and left-handed helical chains along both axes of the unit cell is present. More ordered modifications, close to the limit ordered, fully antichiral, form I of s-PP are obtained by crystallization at high temperatures only for samples containing small contents of 1-butene (1-2 mol %). The presence of 1-butene prevents that the order in the alternation of right- and left-handed helical chains develops at high crystallization temperatures. Samples with contents of 1-butene higher than 70 mol % crystallize in structures similar to that of form I of syndiotactic poly(1-butene). Fiber samples of copolymers with small content of 1-butene (1-2 mol %) present the same behavior of syndiotactic polypropylene. Stretched fibers are in the trans planar form III of s-PP,which transforms into the isochiral helical form II of s-PP upon the release of the tension. Mixtures of crystals in forms I and II of s-PP are obtained by annealing. With increasing the 1-butene content only the antichiral helical form I of s-PP is observed in the stretched fibers of the copolymers, as well as upon the release of the tension. The presence of 1-butene units, for contents higher than 4 mol %, prevents the formation of the trans planar form III of s-PP by stretching. For these samples the formation of form I of s-PP, instead of the isochiral form II, either in the stretched fibers or upon the release of the tension, is a further evidence that the isochiral helical form II of s-PP can be obtained only from fibers initially in the trans planar form III, through a cooperative conformational transformation which induce the formation of helical chains having the same chirality

    Novel Penicillin-Type Analogues Bearing a Variable Substituted 2-Azetidinone Ring at Position 6: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

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    The synthesis and the biological activity of novel semi-synthetic β-lactam compounds containing an azetidinone moiety joined to the amino-nitrogen of the (+)-6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) as new antibacterial agents is reported. The synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against a panel of Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens and environmental bacteria. Tested compounds displayed good antimicrobial activity against all tested Gram positive bacteria and for Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis antimicrobial activity resulted higher than that of the reference antibiotic. Additionally, in vitro cytotoxic screening was also carried out indicating that the compounds do not cause a cell vitality reduction effective at concentration next to and above those shown to be antimicrobial

    Melt-Crystallizations of α and γ Forms of Isotactic Polypropylene in Propene-Butene Copolymers

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    Random isotactic propene-butene copolymers (iPPC4) of different stereoregularity have been synthesized with three different homogeneous single center metallocene catalysts having different stereoselectivity. All samples crystallize from the polymerization solution in mixtures of α and γ forms, and the relative amount of γ form increases with increasing concentrations of butene and of rr stereodefects. All samples crystallize from the melt in mixtures of α and γ forms and the fraction of γ form increases with decreasing cooling rate. At high cooling rates, the crystallization of the α form is always favored, even for samples that contain high total concentration of defects that should crystallize in the γ form. The results demonstrate that in iPPs containing significant concentrations of defects, such as stereodefects and comonomeric units, the γ form is the thermodynamically stable form of iPP and crystallizes in selective conditions of very slow crystallization, whereas the α form is the kinetically favored form and crystallizes in conditions of fast crystallization

    Interactive Imitation Learning of Bimanual Movement Primitives

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    Performing bimanual tasks with dual robotic setups can drastically increase the impact on industrial and daily life applications. However, performing a bimanual task brings many challenges, like synchronization and coordination of the single-arm policies. This article proposes the Safe, Interactive Movement Primitives Learning (SIMPLe) algorithm, to teach and correct single or dual arm impedance policies directly from human kinesthetic demonstrations. Moreover, it proposes a novel graph encoding of the policy based on Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) where the single-arm motion is guaranteed to converge close to the trajectory and then towards the demonstrated goal. Regulation of the robot stiffness according to the epistemic uncertainty of the policy allows for easily reshaping the motion with human feedback and/or adapting to external perturbations. We tested the SIMPLe algorithm on a real dual-arm setup where the teacher gave separate single-arm demonstrations and then successfully synchronized them only using kinesthetic feedback or where the original bimanual demonstration was locally reshaped to pick a box at a different height

    Toxicity Effects of Functionalized Quantum Dots, Gold and Polystyrene Nanoparticles on Target Aquatic Biological Models: A Review

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    Nano-based products are widespread in several sectors, including textiles,medical-products, cosmetics, paints and plastics. Nanosafety and safe-by-design are driving nanoparticle (NP) production and applications through NP functionalization (@NPs). Indeed, @NPs frequently present biological effects that differ fromthe parentmaterial. This paper reviews the impact of quantumdots (QDs), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and polystyrene-coredNPs (PSNPs), evidencing the role ofNP functionalization in toxicity definition. Key biological models were taken into consideration for NP evaluation: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fresh- (F) and saltwater (S)microalgae (Raphidocelis subcapitata (F), Scenedesmus obliquus (F) and Chlorella spp. (F), and Phaeodactylum tricornutum (S)), Daphnia magna, and Xenopus laevis. QDs are quite widespread in technological devices, and they are known to induce genotoxicity and oxidative stress that can drastically change according to the coating employed. For example, AuNPs are frequently functionalized with antimicrobial peptides, which is shown to both increase their activity and decrease the relative environmental toxicity. P-NPs are frequently coated with NH2 for cationic and COOH for anionic surfaces, but when positively charged toxicity effects can be observed. Careful assessment of functionalized and non-functionalized NPs is compulsory to also understand their potential direct and indirect effects when the coating is removed or degraded
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