112 research outputs found

    A retrospective analysis of the activity and safety of oral Etoposide in heavily pretreated metastatic breast cancer patients.

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    Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients derive benefit from chemotherapy, but options become limited after several prior chemotherapeutic regimens. Oral etoposide (VP-16) has previously been found to be clinically active in MBC patients in phase II trials. However, with increasing availability of other drugs, etoposide use has declined in spite of its unfavorable toxicity profile probably being overestimated. We therefore evaluated the clinical benefit and safety of oral etoposide in a population of MBC patients who had failed multiple regimens of currently used therapies. Sixty-six patients with MBC previously treated with a median of eight (range 2-13) regimens of therapy were eligible for the study. Patients received 50 mg/day oral etoposide in 20-day cycles with 1-week of rest. All patients were evaluated for clinical benefit (clinical benefit rate [CBR], complete response, partial response, and disease stabilization >24 weeks), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicities. Median PFS was 4 months, CBR was 18% (overall response rate 4%), and median OS from the start of treatment was 11 months. Little clinically significant or high-grade toxicity were observed. No patients withdrew from treatment due to etoposide-induced toxicity. The favorable clinical response, low toxicity, and low cost of the drug suggest that etoposide is a viable option for patients with heavily pretreated MBC

    Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer: Are We Ready for Prime Time?

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    The prognosis of invasive cervical cancer (CC) remains poor, with a treatment approach that has remained the same for several decades. Lately, a better understanding of the interactions between the disease and the host immune system has allowed researchers to focus on the employment of immune therapy in various clinical settings. The most advanced strategy is immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) with numerous phase II and III trials recently concluded with very encouraging results, assessing single agent therapy, combinations with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Apart from ICIs, several other compounds have gained the spotlight. Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs) due to their highly selective tumoricidal effect and manageable adverse effect profile have received the FDA鈥檚 Breakthrough Therapy designation in 2019. The antibody drug conjugate (ADC) Tisotumab-Vedotin has shown activity in metastatic CC relapsed after at least one line of chemotherapy, with a phase III trial currently actively enrolling patients. Moreover, the deeper understanding of the ever-changing immune landscape of CC carcinogenesis has resulted in the development of active therapeutic vaccines. This review highlights the different immunotherapeutic strategies being explored reflects on what role immunotherapy might have in therapeutic algorithms of CC and addresses the role of predictive biomarkers

    Detection rate of FNA cytology in medullary thyroid carcinoma. a meta-analysis

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    Background: The early detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) can improve patient prognosis, because histological stage and patient age at diagnosis are highly relevant prognostic factors. As a consequence, delay in the diagnosis and/or incomplete surgical treatment should correlate with a poorer prognosis for patients. Few papers have evaluated the specific capability of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) to detect MTC, and small series have been reported. This study conducts a meta-analysis of published data on the diagnostic performance of FNAC in MTC to provide more robust estimates. Research Design and Methods: A comprehensive computer literature search of the PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus databases was conducted by searching for the terms 'medullary thyroid' AND 'cytology', 'FNA', 'FNAB', 'FNAC', 'fine needle' or 'fine-needle'. The search was updated until 21 March 2014, and no language restrictions were used. Results: Fifteen relevant studies and 641 MTC lesions that had undergone FNAC were included. The detection rate (DR) of FNAC in patients with MTC (diagnosed as 'MTC' or 'suspicious for MTC') on a per lesion-based analysis ranged from 12路5% to 88路2%, with a pooled estimate of 56路4% (95% CI: 52路6-60路1%). The included studies were statistically heterogeneous in their estimates of DR (I-square >50%). Egger's regression intercept for DR pooling was 0路03 (95% CI: -3路1 to 3路2, P = 0路9). The study that reported the largest MTC series had a DR of 45%. Data on immunohistochemistry for calcitonin in diagnosing MTC were inconsistent for the meta-analysis. Conclusions: The presented meta-analysis demonstrates that FNAC is able to detect approximately one-half of MTC lesions. These findings suggest that other techniques may be needed in combination with FNAC to diagnose MTC and avoid false negative results. 漏 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd