1,187 research outputs found

    Radio Luminosities and Classificatory Criteria of BL Lacertae Objects

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    Using the sample of radio selected BL Lacertae objects (RBLs) and X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects (XBLs) presented by Sambruna et al. (1996), we calculated the luminosities of radio, optical and X-ray of each source and made the statistical analysis among the luminosities at different wave-bands, broad-band spectral indices from radio to X-ray (αrx\alpha_{\rm rx}) and peak frequencies (νp\nu_p). Our results are as follows: (i) there is a positive correlation between radio luminosity LrL_{\rm r} and αrx\alpha_{\rm rx} and a negative correlation between LrL_{\rm r} and νp\nu_p. High-energy peak BL Lacs (HBLs) and low-energy peak BL Lacs (LBLs) can be distinguished very well, the dividing lines are probably those of logLr=43.25\log {L_{\rm r}}=43.25 (erg/sec) and αrx>\alpha_{\rm rx}>(or \leq )0.75 for LrL_{\rm r} - αrx\alpha_{\rm rx} plot and those of logLr43.25\log {L_{\rm r}}\leq 43.25 (erg/sec) and logνp>14.7\log {\nu_p}>14.7 for the LrL_{\rm r} - νp\nu_p plot; (ii) there is a weak positive correlation between optical luminosity LoL_o and αrx\alpha_{\rm rx} and a negatively weak correlation between LoL_{\rm o} and νp\nu_p; (iii) there is no correlation between X-ray luminosity LXL_X and αrx\alpha_{\rm rx} or between LXL_X and νp\nu_p. From our analysis, we find that synchrotron radiation is the main X-ray radiation mechanism for HBLs while inverse Compton scattering for LBLs.Comment: 9 pages, 3 figures. Submitted to A&

    BeppoSAX Observations of 1-Jy BL Lacertae Objects - II

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    We present new BeppoSAX LECS and MECS observations, covering the energy range 0.1 - 10 keV (observer's frame), of four BL Lacertae objects selected from the 1 Jy sample. All sources display a flat (alpha_x ~ 0.7) X-ray spectrum, which we interpret as inverse Compton emission. One object shows evidence for a low-energy steepening (Delta alpha_x ~ 0.9) which is likely due to the synchrotron component merging into the inverse Compton one around ~ 2 keV. A variable synchrotron tail would explain why the ROSAT spectra of our sources are typically steeper than the BeppoSAX ones (Delta alpha_x} ~ 0.7). The broad-band spectral energy distributions fully confirm this picture and model fits using a synchrotron inverse Compton model allow us to derive the physical parameters (intrinsic power, magnetic field, etc.) of our sources. By combining the results of this paper with those previously obtained on other sources we present a detailed study of the BeppoSAX properties of a well-defined sub-sample of 14 X-ray bright (f_x (0.1 - 10 keV) > 3 x 10^{-12} erg/cm^2/s) 1-Jy BL Lacs. We find a very tight proportionality between nearly simultaneous radio and X-ray powers for the 1-Jy sources in which the X-ray band is dominated by inverse Compton emission, which points to a strong link between X-ray and radio emission components in these objects.Comment: 13 pages, 6 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRAS. Postscript file also available at http://www.stsci.edu/~padovani/xrayspectra_papers.htm

    The 0.1-200 keV spectrum of the blazar PKS 2005-489 during an active state

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    The bright BL Lac object PKS 2005-489 was observed by BeppoSAX on November 1-2, 1998, following an active X-ray state detected by RossiXTE. The source, detected between 0.1 and 200 keV, was in a very high state with a continuum well fitted by a steepening spectrum due to synchrotron emission only. Our X-ray spectrum is the flattest ever observed for this source. The different X-ray spectral slopes and fluxes, as measured by various satellites, are consistent with relatively little changes of the peak frequency of the synchrotron emission, always located below 10^{17} Hz. We discuss these results in the framework of synchrotron self-Compton models. We found that for the BeppoSAX observation, the synchrotron peak frequency is between 10^{15} and 2.5x10^{16} Hz, depending on the model assumptions.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in A&

    The Sedentary Multi-Frequency Survey. I. Statistical Identification and Cosmological Properties of HBL BL Lacs

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    We have assembled a multi-frequency database by cross-correlating the NVSS catalog of radio sources with the RASSBSC list of soft X-ray sources, obtaining optical magnitude estimates from the Palomar and UK Schmidt surveys as provided by the APM and COSMOS on-line services. By exploiting the nearly unique broad-band properties of High-Energy Peaked (HBL) BL Lacs we have statistically identified a sample of 218 objects that is expected to include about 85% of BL Lacs and that is therefore several times larger than all other published samples of HBLs. Using a subset (155 objects) that is radio flux limited and statistically well-defined we have derived the \vovm distribution and the LogN-LogS of extreme HBLs (fx/fr >= 3E-10 erg/cm2/s/Jansky) down to 3.5 mJy. We find that the LogN-LogS flattens around 20 mJy and that = 0.42 +/- 0.02. This extends to the radio band earlier results, based on much smaller X-ray selected samples, about the anomalous cosmological observational properties of HBL BL Lacs. A comparison with the expected radio LogN-LogS of all BL Lacs (based on a beaming model) shows that extreme HBLs make up roughly 2% of the BL Lac population, independently of radio flux. This result, together with the flatness of the radio logN-logS at low fluxes, is in contrast with the predictions of a recent model which assumes an anti-correlation between peak frequency and bolometric luminosity. The extreme fx/fr flux ratios and high X-ray fluxes of these BL Lacs makes them good candidate TeV sources, some of the brighter (and closer) ones possibly detectable with the current generation of Cerenkov telescopes.Comment: 11 pages, LaTeX, 6 ps figures. Accepted for publication in MNRA

    From M-ary Query to Bit Query: a new strategy for efficient large-scale RFID identification

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    The tag collision avoidance has been viewed as one of the most important research problems in RFID communications and bit tracking technology has been widely embedded in query tree (QT) based algorithms to tackle such challenge. Existing solutions show further opportunity to greatly improve the reading performance because collision queries and empty queries are not fully explored. In this paper, a bit query (BQ) strategy based Mary query tree protocol (BQMT) is presented, which can not only eliminate idle queries but also separate collided tags into many small subsets and make full use of the collided bits. To further optimize the reading performance, a modified dual prefixes matching (MDPM) mechanism is presented to allow multiple tags to respond in the same slot and thus significantly reduce the number of queries. Theoretical analysis and simulations are supplemented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed BQMT and MDPM, which outperform the existing QT-based algorithms. Also, the BQMT and MDPM can be combined to BQMDPM to improve the reading performance in system efficiency, total identification time, communication complexity and average energy cost
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