1,494 research outputs found

    A common allele of HLA is associated with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection

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    Studies have demonstrated that at least 20% of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 remain asymptomatic1-4. Although most global efforts have focused on severe illness in COVID-19, examining asymptomatic infection provides a unique opportunity to consider early immunological features that promote rapid viral clearance. Here, postulating that variation in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci may underly processes mediating asymptomatic infection, we enrolled 29,947 individuals, for whom high-resolution HLA genotyping data were available, in a smartphone-based study designed to track COVID-19 symptoms and outcomes. Our discovery cohort (n = 1,428) comprised unvaccinated individuals who reported a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2. We tested for association of five HLA loci with disease course and identified a strong association between HLA-B*15:01 and asymptomatic infection, observed in two independent cohorts. Suggesting that this genetic association is due to pre-existing T cell immunity, we show that T cells from pre-pandemic samples from individuals carrying HLA-B*15:01 were reactive to the immunodominant SARS-CoV-2 S-derived peptide NQKLIANQF. The majority of the reactive T cells displayed a memory phenotype, were highly polyfunctional and were cross-reactive to a peptide derived from seasonal coronaviruses. The crystal structure of HLA-B*15:01-peptide complexes demonstrates that the peptides NQKLIANQF and NQKLIANAF (from OC43-CoV and HKU1-CoV) share a similar ability to be stabilized and presented by HLA-B*15:01. Finally, we show that the structural similarity of the peptides underpins T cell cross-reactivity of high-affinity public T cell receptors, providing the molecular basis for HLA-B*15:01-mediated pre-existing immunity

    Evaluation of a quality improvement intervention to reduce anastomotic leak following right colectomy (EAGLE): pragmatic, batched stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized trial in 64 countries

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    Background Anastomotic leak affects 8 per cent of patients after right colectomy with a 10-fold increased risk of postoperative death. The EAGLE study aimed to develop and test whether an international, standardized quality improvement intervention could reduce anastomotic leaks. Methods The internationally intended protocol, iteratively co-developed by a multistage Delphi process, comprised an online educational module introducing risk stratification, an intraoperative checklist, and harmonized surgical techniques. Clusters (hospital teams) were randomized to one of three arms with varied sequences of intervention/data collection by a derived stepped-wedge batch design (at least 18 hospital teams per batch). Patients were blinded to the study allocation. Low- and middle-income country enrolment was encouraged. The primary outcome (assessed by intention to treat) was anastomotic leak rate, and subgroup analyses by module completion (at least 80 per cent of surgeons, high engagement; less than 50 per cent, low engagement) were preplanned. Results A total 355 hospital teams registered, with 332 from 64 countries (39.2 per cent low and middle income) included in the final analysis. The online modules were completed by half of the surgeons (2143 of 4411). The primary analysis included 3039 of the 3268 patients recruited (206 patients had no anastomosis and 23 were lost to follow-up), with anastomotic leaks arising before and after the intervention in 10.1 and 9.6 per cent respectively (adjusted OR 0.87, 95 per cent c.i. 0.59 to 1.30; P = 0.498). The proportion of surgeons completing the educational modules was an influence: the leak rate decreased from 12.2 per cent (61 of 500) before intervention to 5.1 per cent (24 of 473) after intervention in high-engagement centres (adjusted OR 0.36, 0.20 to 0.64; P < 0.001), but this was not observed in low-engagement hospitals (8.3 per cent (59 of 714) and 13.8 per cent (61 of 443) respectively; adjusted OR 2.09, 1.31 to 3.31). Conclusion Completion of globally available digital training by engaged teams can alter anastomotic leak rates. Registration number: NCT04270721 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov)

    Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker initiation on organ support-free days in patients hospitalized with COVID-19