684 research outputs found

    Nuclear Multifragmentation Critical Exponents

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    We show that the critical exponents of nuclear multi-fragmentation have not been determined conclusively yet.Comment: 3 pages, LaTeX, one postscript figure appended, sub. to Phys.Rev.Lett. as a commen

    The Caribbean Syzygy: a study of the novels of Edgar Mittelholzer and Wilson Harris

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    The problem of racial inheritance - the "search for identity" - is a recurring theme in the criticism of Caribbean literature. It is a pre-occupation with Caribbean writers, affecting both subject matter and literary quality, as FM. Birbalsingh, for example, has shown with reference to the novels of John Hearne and E,R. Braithwaite (Caribbean quarterly Vols. 14, December 1968 and 16, March 1970). This study of the work of Edgar Mittelholzer and Wilson Harris will attempt to show that there are important areas still to be explored relating Caribbean literature to its complex racial and cultural background. Both Mittelholzer and Harris deserve close, critical study in their own right; but a parallel examination reveals similarities and differences which bring into sharper focus wider concerns of Caribbean literature. The two important directions of West Indian writing are more clearly seen: the one, pioneered by Mittelholzer, in which the writer looks outward towards a "parent" culture, and the other looking inward, seeking in its own, complex inheritance the raw material for new and original growth. Mittelholzer and Harris are both Guyanese of mixed racial stock, both deeply concerned with the psychological effects of this mixture, and both writers have a profound awareness of the Guyanese historical and cultural heritage. They also share a deep feeling for the Guyenese landscape which appears in their work as a brooding presence affecting radically -the lives of those who live within i-t. Mittelholzer's attitude to his mixed racial and cultural origins, however, produces in his work a schizophrenic Imbalance while Harris, by accepting racial and cultural complexity as a starting-point, initiates a uniquely creative and experimental art. Mittelholzer, in his approach to history, human character eM landscape, remains a vi "coastal" writer never really concerned (as Harris is) with. the deeper significance of the "Interior" and all that this implies, both in a geographical and psychological sense. The fact that Mittelbolzer's work reflects a psychological imbalance induced by a pre-occupation with racial identity has been demonstrated by Denis Williams in the 1968 Mittelholzer Lectures, and by Joyce Sparer in a series of articles in the Guyana Graphic. Mittelholzer's awareness of this imbalance, however, and his attempt to come to terms with it in his art remain to be examined and documented, as does Harris's attempt to create am "associative" art aimed at healing the breach in the individual consciousness of Caribbean Man. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that Mitteholzer and. Harris, although antithetical in impact and style (each representing an approach to fiction directly opposed to the other) are, in fact, the opposite elements of a dichotomy. Their work illustrates the negative and positive aspects of the racial and cultural schizophrenia of the Caribbean, for both writers in their different ways are preoccupied with (and therefore have embodied in their work) the juxtaposition and, contrasting of apparently irreconcilable emotional and intellectual qualities - the Caribbean Syzygy

    Liquid-Gas Phase Transition in Nuclear Equation of State

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    A canonical ensemble model is used to describe a caloric curve of nuclear liquid-gas phase transition. Allowing a discontinuity in the freeze out density from one spinodal density to another for a given initial temperature, the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition can be described as first order. Averaging over various freeze out densities of all the possible initial temperatures for a given total reaction energy, the first order characteristics of liquid-gas phase transition is smeared out to a smooth transition. Two experiments, one at low beam energy and one at high beam energy show different caloric behaviors and are discussed.Comment: 12 pages in Revtex including two Postscript figure

    Geochemical indices allow estimation of heavy metal background concentration in soils

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    Defining background concentrations for heavy metals in soils is essential for recognizing and managing soil pollution. However, background concentrations of metals in soils can vary naturally by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, many soils have also been subject to unquantifiable anthropogenic inputs of metals, in some cases, for centuries. Hence determination of heavy metal background concentrations in soils has to date been fraught with difficulty. Here we demonstrate that there are associations between the background heavy metal and Fe or Mn contents in soils which appear to be consistent for seven important heavy metals of environmental concern. The relationships are remarkably independent of both soil type and climatic setting. These observations provide the basis for a series of general equations from which it is proposed Southeast Asian including Australian, and possibly worldwide background concentrations for As, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soils can be derived.R. E. Hamon, M. J. McLaughlin, R. J. Gilkes, A. W. Rate, B. Zarcinas, A. Robertson, G. Cozens, N. Radford and L. Bettena

    Universal Behavior of Lyapunov Exponents in Unstable Systems

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    We calculate the Lyapunov exponents in a classical molecular dynamics framework. The system is composed of few hundreds particles interacting either through Yukawa (Nuclear) or Slater-Kirkwood (Atomic) forces. The forces are chosen to give an Equation of State that resembles the nuclear and the atomic 4He^4He Equation Of State respectively near the critical point for liquid-gas phase transition. We find the largest fluctuations for an initial "critical temperature". The largest Lyapunov exponents λ\lambda are always positive and can be very well fitted near this "critical temperature" with a functional form λTTcω\lambda\propto |T-T_c|^{-\omega}, where the exponent ω=0.15\omega=0.15 is independent of the system and mass number. At smaller temperatures we find that λT 0.4498\lambda\propto T~ ^{0.4498}, a universal behavior characteristic of an order to chaos transition.Comment: 11 pages, RevTeX, 3 figures not included available upon reques

    Second Order Phase Transitions : From Infinite to Finite Systems

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    We investigate the Equation of State (EOS) of classical systems having 300 and 512 particles confined in a box with periodic boundary conditions. We show that such a system, independently on the number of particles investigated, has a critical density of about 1/3 the ground state density and a critical temperature of about 2.5 MeV2.5~ MeV. The mass distribution at the critical point exhibits a power law with τ=2.23\tau = 2.23. Making use of the grand partition function of Fisher's droplet model, we obtain an analytical EOS around the critical point in good agreement with the one extracted from the numerical simulations.Comment: RevTex file, 17 pages + 9 figures available upon request from [email protected]

    Gene expression profile predicts response to the combination of tosedostat and low-dose cytarabine in elderly AML

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    Tosedostat is an orally administered metalloenzyme inhibitor with antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activity against hematological and solid human cancers. Clinical activity has been demonstrated in relapsed acutemyeloid leukemia (AML). Thirty-three elderly patients with AML (median age, 75 years) received 120mgtosedostat orally once daily combinedwith subcutaneous low-dose cytarabine (20 mg twice per day for 10 days, up to 8 cycles), until disease progression. Inductionmortality was 12%. According to an intention-to-treat analysis, the complete remission (CR) rate was 48.5%, and thus the primary end point of the study was reached (expected CR, 25%). The partial remission rate was 6.1%,with an overall response rate of 54.5%. Furthermore, 4 of 33 patients had stable disease (median: 286 days). Themedian progression-free survival and overall survival (OS)were 203 days and 222 days, respectively. Responding patients had a longer median OS than nonresponding patients (P=.001). Amicroarray analysis performed in 29 of 33 patients identified 188 genes associated with clinical response (CR vs no CR). Three of them (CD93, GORASP1, CXCL16) were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, which correctly classified 83% of the patients. Specifically, CR achievement was efficiently predicted by the gene expression patterns, with an overall accuracy exceeding 90%. Finally, a negative predictive value of 100% was validated in an independent series, thus representing the first molecular predictor for clinical response to a specific combination drug treatment for AML

    Exactly Solvable Models: The Road Towards a Rigorous Treatment of Phase Transitions in Finite Systems

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    We discuss exact analytical solutions of a variety of statistical models recently obtained for finite systems by a novel powerful mathematical method, the Laplace-Fourier transform. Among them are a constrained version of the statistical multifragmentation model, the Gas of Bags Model and the Hills and Dales Model of surface partition. Thus, the Laplace-Fourier transform allows one to study the nuclear matter equation of state, the equation of state of hadronic and quark gluon matter and surface partitions on the same footing. A complete analysis of the isobaric partition singularities of these models is done for finite systems. The developed formalism allows us, for the first time, to exactly define the finite volume analogs of gaseous, liquid and mixed phases of these models from the first principles of statistical mechanics and demonstrate the pitfalls of earlier works. The found solutions may be used for building up a new theoretical apparatus to rigorously study phase transitions in finite systems. The strategic directions of future research opened by these exact results are also discussed.Comment: Contribution to the ``World Consensus Initiative III, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas, USA, February 11-17, 2005, 21

    Inclusive Soft Pion Production from 12.3 and 17.5 GeV/c Protons on Be, Cu and Au

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    Differential cross-sections are presented for the inclusive production of charged pions in the momentum range 0.1 to 1.2 GeV/c in interactions of 12.3 and 17.5 GeV/c protons with Be, Cu, and Au targets. The measurements were made by Experiment 910 at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron in Brookhaven National Laboratory. The cross-sections are presented as a function of pion total momentum and production polar angle θ\theta with respect to the beam.Comment: 14 pages, 8 figure
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