684 research outputs found

### Nuclear Multifragmentation Critical Exponents

We show that the critical exponents of nuclear multi-fragmentation have not
been determined conclusively yet.Comment: 3 pages, LaTeX, one postscript figure appended, sub. to
Phys.Rev.Lett. as a commen

### The Caribbean Syzygy: a study of the novels of Edgar Mittelholzer and Wilson Harris

The problem of racial inheritance - the "search for identity" - is a recurring theme in the criticism of Caribbean literature. It is a pre-occupation with Caribbean writers, affecting both subject matter and literary quality, as FM. Birbalsingh, for example, has shown with reference to the novels of John Hearne and E,R. Braithwaite (Caribbean quarterly Vols. 14, December 1968 and 16, March 1970). This study of the work of Edgar Mittelholzer and Wilson Harris will attempt to show that there are important areas still to be explored relating Caribbean literature to its complex racial and cultural background. Both Mittelholzer and Harris deserve close, critical study in their own right; but a parallel examination reveals similarities and differences which bring into sharper focus wider concerns of Caribbean literature. The two important directions of West Indian writing are more clearly seen: the one, pioneered by Mittelholzer, in which the writer looks outward towards a "parent" culture, and the other looking inward, seeking in its own, complex inheritance the raw material for new and original growth. Mittelholzer and Harris are both Guyanese of mixed racial stock, both deeply concerned with the psychological effects of this mixture, and both writers have a profound awareness of the Guyanese historical and cultural heritage. They also share a deep feeling for the Guyenese landscape which appears in their work as a brooding presence affecting radically -the lives of those who live within i-t. Mittelholzer's attitude to his mixed racial and cultural origins, however, produces in his work a schizophrenic Imbalance while Harris, by accepting racial and cultural complexity as a starting-point, initiates a uniquely creative and experimental art. Mittelholzer, in his approach to history, human character eM landscape, remains a vi "coastal" writer never really concerned (as Harris is) with. the deeper significance of the "Interior" and all that this implies, both in a geographical and psychological sense. The fact that Mittelbolzer's work reflects a psychological imbalance induced by a pre-occupation with racial identity has been demonstrated by Denis Williams in the 1968 Mittelholzer Lectures, and by Joyce Sparer in a series of articles in the Guyana Graphic. Mittelholzer's awareness of this imbalance, however, and his attempt to come to terms with it in his art remain to be examined and documented, as does Harris's attempt to create am "associative" art aimed at healing the breach in the individual consciousness of Caribbean Man. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that Mitteholzer and. Harris, although antithetical in impact and style (each representing an approach to fiction directly opposed to the other) are, in fact, the opposite elements of a dichotomy. Their work illustrates the negative and positive aspects of the racial and cultural schizophrenia of the Caribbean, for both writers in their different ways are preoccupied with (and therefore have embodied in their work) the juxtaposition and, contrasting of apparently irreconcilable emotional and intellectual qualities - the Caribbean Syzygy

### Liquid-Gas Phase Transition in Nuclear Equation of State

A canonical ensemble model is used to describe a caloric curve of nuclear
liquid-gas phase transition. Allowing a discontinuity in the freeze out density
from one spinodal density to another for a given initial temperature, the
nuclear liquid-gas phase transition can be described as first order. Averaging
over various freeze out densities of all the possible initial temperatures for
a given total reaction energy, the first order characteristics of liquid-gas
phase transition is smeared out to a smooth transition. Two experiments, one at
low beam energy and one at high beam energy show different caloric behaviors
and are discussed.Comment: 12 pages in Revtex including two Postscript figure

### Geochemical indices allow estimation of heavy metal background concentration in soils

Defining background concentrations for heavy metals in soils is essential for recognizing and managing soil pollution. However, background concentrations of metals in soils can vary naturally by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, many soils have also been subject to unquantifiable anthropogenic inputs of metals, in some cases, for centuries. Hence determination of heavy metal background concentrations in soils has to date been fraught with difficulty. Here we demonstrate that there are associations between the background heavy metal and Fe or Mn contents in soils which appear to be consistent for seven important heavy metals of environmental concern. The relationships are remarkably independent of both soil type and climatic setting. These observations provide the basis for a series of general equations from which it is proposed Southeast Asian including Australian, and possibly worldwide background concentrations for As, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soils can be derived.R. E. Hamon, M. J. McLaughlin, R. J. Gilkes, A. W. Rate, B. Zarcinas, A. Robertson, G. Cozens, N. Radford and L. Bettena

### Universal Behavior of Lyapunov Exponents in Unstable Systems

We calculate the Lyapunov exponents in a classical molecular dynamics
framework. The system is composed of few hundreds particles interacting either
through Yukawa (Nuclear) or Slater-Kirkwood (Atomic) forces. The forces are
chosen to give an Equation of State that resembles the nuclear and the atomic
$^4He$ Equation Of State respectively near the critical point for liquid-gas
phase transition. We find the largest fluctuations for an initial "critical
temperature". The largest Lyapunov exponents $\lambda$ are always positive and
can be very well fitted near this "critical temperature" with a functional form
$\lambda\propto |T-T_c|^{-\omega}$, where the exponent $\omega=0.15$ is
independent of the system and mass number. At smaller temperatures we find that
$\lambda\propto T~ ^{0.4498}$, a universal behavior characteristic of an order
to chaos transition.Comment: 11 pages, RevTeX, 3 figures not included available upon reques

### Second Order Phase Transitions : From Infinite to Finite Systems

We investigate the Equation of State (EOS) of classical systems having 300
and 512 particles confined in a box with periodic boundary conditions. We show
that such a system, independently on the number of particles investigated, has
a critical density of about 1/3 the ground state density and a critical
temperature of about $2.5~ MeV$. The mass distribution at the critical point
exhibits a power law with $\tau = 2.23$. Making use of the grand partition
function of Fisher's droplet model, we obtain an analytical EOS around the
critical point in good agreement with the one extracted from the numerical
simulations.Comment: RevTex file, 17 pages + 9 figures available upon request from
[email protected]

### Gene expression profile predicts response to the combination of tosedostat and low-dose cytarabine in elderly AML

Tosedostat is an orally administered metalloenzyme inhibitor with antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activity against hematological and solid human cancers. Clinical activity has been demonstrated in relapsed acutemyeloid leukemia (AML). Thirty-three elderly patients with AML (median age, 75 years) received 120mgtosedostat orally once daily combinedwith subcutaneous low-dose cytarabine (20 mg twice per day for 10 days, up to 8 cycles), until disease progression. Inductionmortality was 12%. According to an intention-to-treat analysis, the complete remission (CR) rate was 48.5%, and thus the primary end point of the study was reached (expected CR, 25%). The partial remission rate was 6.1%,with an overall response rate of 54.5%. Furthermore, 4 of 33 patients had stable disease (median: 286 days). Themedian progression-free survival and overall survival (OS)were 203 days and 222 days, respectively. Responding patients had a longer median OS than nonresponding patients (P=.001). Amicroarray analysis performed in 29 of 33 patients identified 188 genes associated with clinical response (CR vs no CR). Three of them (CD93, GORASP1, CXCL16) were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, which correctly classified 83% of the patients. Specifically, CR achievement was efficiently predicted by the gene expression patterns, with an overall accuracy exceeding 90%. Finally, a negative predictive value of 100% was validated in an independent series, thus representing the first molecular predictor for clinical response to a specific combination drug treatment for AML

### Exactly Solvable Models: The Road Towards a Rigorous Treatment of Phase Transitions in Finite Systems

We discuss exact analytical solutions of a variety of statistical models
recently obtained for finite systems by a novel powerful mathematical method,
the Laplace-Fourier transform. Among them are a constrained version of the
statistical multifragmentation model, the Gas of Bags Model and the Hills and
Dales Model of surface partition. Thus, the Laplace-Fourier transform allows
one to study the nuclear matter equation of state, the equation of state of
hadronic and quark gluon matter and surface partitions on the same footing. A
complete analysis of the isobaric partition singularities of these models is
done for finite systems. The developed formalism allows us, for the first time,
to exactly define the finite volume analogs of gaseous, liquid and mixed phases
of these models from the first principles of statistical mechanics and
demonstrate the pitfalls of earlier works. The found solutions may be used for
building up a new theoretical apparatus to rigorously study phase transitions
in finite systems. The strategic directions of future research opened by these
exact results are also discussed.Comment: Contribution to the ``World Consensus Initiative III, Texas A & M
University, College Station, Texas, USA, February 11-17, 2005, 21

### Inclusive Soft Pion Production from 12.3 and 17.5 GeV/c Protons on Be, Cu and Au

Differential cross-sections are presented for the inclusive production of
charged pions in the momentum range 0.1 to 1.2 GeV/c in interactions of 12.3
and 17.5 GeV/c protons with Be, Cu, and Au targets. The measurements were made
by Experiment 910 at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron in Brookhaven
National Laboratory. The cross-sections are presented as a function of pion
total momentum and production polar angle $\theta$ with respect to the beam.Comment: 14 pages, 8 figure

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