27,516 research outputs found

    Induced voltage in an open wire

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    A puzzle arising from Faraday's law is considered and solved concerning the question which voltage is induced in an open wire with a time-varying homogeneous magnetic field. In contrast to closed wires where the voltage is determined by the time variance of magnetic field and enclosed area, in an open wire we have to integrate the electric field along the wire. It is found that the longitudinal electric field contributes with 1/3 and the transverse field with 2/3 to the induced voltage. In order to find the electric fields the sources of the magnetic fields are necessary to know. The representation of a homogeneous and time-varying magnetic field implies unavoidably a certain symmetry point or symmetry line which depend on the geometry of the source. As a consequence the induced voltage of an open wire is found to be the area covered with respect to this symmetry line or point perpendicular to the magnetic field. This in turn allows to find the symmetry points of a magnetic field source by measuring the voltage of an open wire placed with different angles in the magnetic field. We present exactly solvable models for a symmetry point and for a symmetry line, respectively. The results are applicable to open circuit problems like corrosion and for astrophysical applications

    Sparse Approximation Via Iterative Thresholding

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    The well-known shrinkage technique is still relevant for contemporary signal processing problems over redundant dictionaries. We present theoretical and empirical analyses for two iterative algorithms for sparse approximation that use shrinkage. The GENERAL IT algorithm amounts to a Landweber iteration with nonlinear shrinkage at each iteration step. The BLOCK IT algorithm arises in morphological components analysis. A sufficient condition for which General IT exactly recovers a sparse signal is presented, in which the cumulative coherence function naturally arises. This analysis extends previous results concerning the Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) and Basis Pursuit (BP) algorithms to IT algorithms

    Cross-Sender Bit-Mixing Coding

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    Scheduling to avoid packet collisions is a long-standing challenge in networking, and has become even trickier in wireless networks with multiple senders and multiple receivers. In fact, researchers have proved that even {\em perfect} scheduling can only achieve R=O(1lnN)\mathbf{R} = O(\frac{1}{\ln N}). Here NN is the number of nodes in the network, and R\mathbf{R} is the {\em medium utilization rate}. Ideally, one would hope to achieve R=Θ(1)\mathbf{R} = \Theta(1), while avoiding all the complexities in scheduling. To this end, this paper proposes {\em cross-sender bit-mixing coding} ({\em BMC}), which does not rely on scheduling. Instead, users transmit simultaneously on suitably-chosen slots, and the amount of overlap in different user's slots is controlled via coding. We prove that in all possible network topologies, using BMC enables us to achieve R=Θ(1)\mathbf{R}=\Theta(1). We also prove that the space and time complexities of BMC encoding/decoding are all low-order polynomials.Comment: Published in the International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN), 201

    Spin distribution of nuclear levels using static path approximation with random-phase approximation

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    We present a thermal and quantum-mechanical treatment of nuclear rotation using the formalism of static path approximation (SPA) plus random-phase approximation (RPA). Naive perturbation theory fails because of the presence of zero-frequency modes due to dynamical symmetry breaking. Such modes lead to infrared divergences. We show that composite zero-frequency excitations are properly treated within the collective coordinate method. The resulting perturbation theory is free from infrared divergences. Without the assumption of individual random spin vectors, we derive microscopically the spin distribution of the level density. The moment of inertia is thereby related to the spin-cutoff parameter in the usual way. Explicit calculations are performed for 56^Fe; various thermal properties are discussed. In particular, we demonstrate that the increase of the moment of inertia with increasing temperature is correlated with the suppression of pairing correlations.Comment: 12 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in Physical Review

    Effect of Edge Roughness on Electronic Transport in Graphene Nanoribbon Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors

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    Results of quantum mechanical simulations of the influence of edge disorder on transport in graphene nanoribbon metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are reported. The addition of edge disorder significantly reduces ON-state currents and increases OFF-state currents, and introduces wide variability across devices. These effects decrease as ribbon widths increase and as edges become smoother. However the bandgap decreases with increasing width, thereby increasing the band-to-band tunneling mediated subthreshold leakage current even with perfect nanoribbons. These results suggest that without atomically precise edge control during fabrication, MOSFET performance gains through use of graphene will be difficult to achieve.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figure

    Anthropologists Are Talking – About The Anthropocene

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    Integrated cost-benefit analysis of tsetse control and herd productivity to inform control programs for animal African trypanosomiasis

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    Animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) and its tsetse vector are responsible for annual losses estimated in billions of US dollars ($). Recent years have seen the implementation of a series of multinational interventions. However, actors of AAT control face complex resource allocation decisions due to the geographical range of AAT, diversity of ecological and livestock systems, and range of control methods available. The study presented here integrates an existing tsetse abundance model with a bio-economic herd model that captures local production characteristics as well as heterogeneities in AAT incidence and breed. These models were used to predict the impact of tsetse elimination on the net value of cattle production in the districts of Mambwe, in Zambia, and Faro et Déo in Cameroon. The net value of cattle production under the current situation was used as a baseline, and compared with alternative publicly funded control programmes. In Zambia, the current baseline is AAT control implemented privately by cattle owners (Scenario Z0). In Cameroon, the baseline (Scenario C0) is a small-scale publicly funded tsetse control programme and privately funded control at farm level. The model was run for 10 years, using a discount rate of 5%

    Quenching of pairing gap at finite temperature in 184W

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    We extract pairing gap in 184^{184}W at finite temperature for the first time from the experimental level densities of 183^{183}W, 184^{184}W, and 185^{185}W using "thermal" odd-even mass difference. We found the quenching of pairing gap near the critical temperature Tc=0.47T_c = 0.47 MeV in the BCS calculations. It is shown that the monopole pairing model with a deformed Woods-Saxon potential explains the reduction of the pairing correlation using the partition function with the number parity projection in the static path approximation plus random-phase approximation.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in PR

    The Combined Impact Of IgLON Family Proteins Lsamp And Neurotrimin On Developing Neurons And Behavioral Profiles In Mouse

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    Cell surface neural adhesion proteins are critical components in the complex orchestration of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and neuritogenesis essential for proper brain construction and behavior. We focused on the impact of two plasticity-associated IgLON family neural adhesion molecules, Neurotrimin (Ntm) and Limbic system associated membrane protein (Lsamp), on mouse behavior and its underlying neural development. Phenotyping neurons derived from the hippocampi of Lsamp−/−, Ntm−/− and Lsamp−/−Ntm−/− mice was performed in parallel with behavioral testing. While the anatomy of mutant brains revealed no gross changes, the Ntm−/− hippocampal neurons exhibited premature sprouting of neurites and manifested accelerated neurite elongation and branching. We propose that Ntm exerts an inhibitory impact on neurite outgrowth, whereas Lsamp appears to be an enhancer of the said process as premature neuritogenesis in Ntm−/− neurons is apparent only in the presence of Lsamp. We also show interplay between Lsamp and Ntm in regulating tissue homeostasis: the impact of Ntm on cellular proliferation was dependent on Lsamp, and Lsamp appeared to be a positive regulator of apoptosis in the presence of Ntm. Behavioral phenotyping indicated test-specific interactions between Lsamp and Ntm. The phenotypes of single mutant lines, such as reduced swimming speed in Morris water maze and increased activity in the elevated plus maze, were magnified in Lsamp−/−Ntm−/− mice. Altogether, evidence both from behavioral experiments and cultured hippocampal cells show combined and differential interactions between Ntm and Lsamp in the formation of hippocampal circuits and behavioral profiles. We demonstrate that mutual interactions between IgLON molecules regulate the initiation of neurite sprouting at very early ages, and even cell-autonomously, independent of their regulation of cell-cell adhesion

    Exons, introns and DNA thermodynamics

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    The genes of eukaryotes are characterized by protein coding fragments, the exons, interrupted by introns, i.e. stretches of DNA which do not carry any useful information for the protein synthesis. We have analyzed the melting behavior of randomly selected human cDNA sequences obtained from the genomic DNA by removing all introns. A clear correspondence is observed between exons and melting domains. This finding may provide new insights in the physical mechanisms underlying the evolution of genes.Comment: 4 pages, 8 figures - Final version as published. See also Phys. Rev. Focus 15, story 1
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