14,463 research outputs found

    Pulsar Radio Emission Altitude from Curvature Radiation

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    We assume that the relativistic sources moving along the dipolar magnetic field lines emit curvature radiation. The beamed emission occurs in the direction of tangents to the field lines, and to receive it, the sight line must align with the tangent within the beaming angle 1/gamma, where gamma is the particle Lorentz factor. By solving the viewing geometry in an inclined and rotating dipole magnetic field, we show that, at any given pulse phase, observer tends to receive radiation only from the specific heights allowed by the geometry. We find outer conal components are emitted at higher altitudes compared to inner components including the core. At any pulse phase, low frequency emission comes from higher altitudes than high frequency emission. We have modeled the emission heights of pulse components of PSR B0329+54, and estimated field line curvature radii and particle Lorentz factors in the emission regions.Comment: 14 pages, 3 figures. Accepted for Astrophysical Journal, 200

    The spark-associated soliton model for pulsar radio emission

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    We propose a new, self-consistent theory of coherent pulsar radio emission based on the non-stationary sparking model of Ruderman & Sutherland (1975), modified by Gil & Sendyk (2000) in the accompanying Paper I. According to these authors, the polar cap is populated as densely as possible by a number of sparks with a characteristic perpendicular dimension D approximately equal to the polar gap height scale h, separated from each other also by about h. Each spark reappears in approximately the same place on the polar cap for a time scale much longer than its life-time and delivers to the open magnetosphere a sequence of electron-positron clouds which flow orderly along a flux tube of dipolar magnetic field lines. The overlapping of particles with different momenta from consecutive clouds leads to effective two-stream instability, which triggers electrostatic Langmuir waves at the altitudes of about 50 stellar radii. The electrostatic oscillations are modulationally unstable and their nonlinear evolution results in formation of ``bunch-like'' charged solitons. A characteristic soliton length along magnetic field lines is about 30 cm, so they are capable of emitting coherent curvature radiation at radio wavelengths. The net soliton charge is about 10^21 fundamental charges, contained within a volume of about 10^14 cm^3. For a typical pulsar, there are about 10^5 solitons associated with each of about 25 sparks operating on the polar cap at any instant. One soliton moving relativisticaly along dipolar field lines with a Lorentz factor of the order of 100 generates a power of about 10^21 erg/s by means of curvature radiation. Then the total power of a typical radio pulsar can be estimated as being about 10^(27-28) erg/s.Comment: 27 pages, 5 figures, accepted by Ap

    A Methodology to Engineer and Validate Dynamic Multi-level Multi-agent Based Simulations

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    This article proposes a methodology to model and simulate complex systems, based on IRM4MLS, a generic agent-based meta-model able to deal with multi-level systems. This methodology permits the engineering of dynamic multi-level agent-based models, to represent complex systems over several scales and domains of interest. Its goal is to simulate a phenomenon using dynamically the lightest representation to save computer resources without loss of information. This methodology is based on two mechanisms: (1) the activation or deactivation of agents representing different domain parts of the same phenomenon and (2) the aggregation or disaggregation of agents representing the same phenomenon at different scales.Comment: Presented at 3th International Workshop on Multi-Agent Based Simulation, Valencia, Spain, 5th June 201

    HS 0139+0559, HS 0229+8016, HS 0506+7725, and HS 0642+5049 : four new long-period cataclysmic variables

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    We present time-resolved optical spectroscopy and photometry of four relatively bright (V ∌ 14.0−15.5) long-period cataclysmic variables(CVs) discovered in the Hamburg Quasar Survey: HS 0139+0559, HS 0229+8016, HS 0506+7725, and HS 0642+5049. Their respective orbital periods, 243.69 ± 0.49 min, 232.550 ± 0.049 min, 212.7 ± 0.2 min, and 225.90 ± 0.23 min are determined from radial velocity and photometric variability studies. HS 0506+7725 is characterised by strong Balmer and He emission lines, short-period (∌10−20 min) flickering, and weak X-ray emission in the ROSAT All Sky Survey. The detection of a deep low state (B 18.5) identifies HS 0506+7725 as a member of the VY Scl stars. HS 0139+0559, HS 0229+8016, and HS 0642+5049 display thick-disc like spectra and no or only weak flickering activity. HS 0139+0559 and HS 0229+8016 exhibit clean quasi-sinusoidal radial velocity variations of their emission lines but no or very little orbital photometricvariability. In contrast, we detect no radial velocity variation in HS 0642+5049 but a noticeable orbital brightness variation. We identify all three systems either as UX UMa-type novalike variables or as Z Cam-type dwarf novae. Our identification of these four new systems underlines that the currently known sample of CVs is rather incomplete even for bright objects. The four new systems add to the clustering of orbital periods in the 3−4 h range found in the sample of HQS selected CVs, and we discuss the large incidence of magnetic CVs and VY Scl/SW Sex stars found in this period range among the known population of CVs

    Proton vs. neutron halo breakup

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    In this paper we show how effective parameters such as effective binding energies can be defined for a proton in the combined nuclear-Coulomb potential, including also the target potential, in the case in which the proton is bound in a nucleus which is partner of a nuclear reaction. Using such effective parameters the proton behaves similarly to a neutron. In this way some unexpected results obtained from dynamical calculations for reactions initiated by very weakly bound proton halo nuclei can be interpreted. Namely the fact that stripping dominates the nuclear breakup cross section which in turn dominates over the Coulomb breakup even when the target is heavy at medium to high incident energies. Our interpretation helps also clarifying why the existence and characteristics of a proton halo extracted from different types of data have sometimes appeared contradictory.Comment: 7 Latex pages, 3 table, 3 ps figures, to appear in Phys. Rev.

    Effects of Zeeman spin splitting on the modular symmetry in the quantum Hall effect

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    Magnetic-field-induced phase transitions in the integer quantum Hall effect are studied under the formation of paired Landau bands arising from Zeeman spin splitting. By investigating features of modular symmetry, we showed that modifications to the particle-hole transformation should be considered under the coupling between the paired Landau bands. Our study indicates that such a transformation should be modified either when the Zeeman gap is much smaller than the cyclotron gap, or when these two gaps are comparable.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figure

    An effective theory of accelerated expansion

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    We work out an effective theory of accelerated expansion to describe general phenomena of inflation and acceleration (dark energy) in the Universe. Our aim is to determine from theoretical grounds, in a physically-motivated and model independent way, which and how many (free) parameters are needed to broadly capture the physics of a theory describing cosmic acceleration. Our goal is to make as much as possible transparent the physical interpretation of the parameters describing the expansion. We show that, at leading order, there are five independent parameters, of which one can be constrained via general relativity tests. The other four parameters need to be determined by observing and measuring the cosmic expansion rate only, H(z). Therefore we suggest that future cosmology surveys focus on obtaining an accurate as possible measurement of H(z)H(z) to constrain the nature of accelerated expansion (dark energy and/or inflation).Comment: In press; minor changes, results unchange