128 research outputs found

    Terrestrial Very-Long-Baseline Atom Interferometry: Workshop Summary

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    Summary of the Terrestrial Very-Long-Baseline Atom Interferometry Workshop held at CERN: https://indico.cern.ch/event/1208783/This document presents a summary of the 2023 Terrestrial Very-Long-Baseline Atom Interferometry Workshop hosted by CERN. The workshop brought together experts from around the world to discuss the exciting developments in large-scale atom interferometer (AI) prototypes and their potential for detecting ultralight dark matter and gravitational waves. The primary objective of the workshop was to lay the groundwork for an international TVLBAI proto-collaboration. This collaboration aims to unite researchers from different institutions to strategize and secure funding for terrestrial large-scale AI projects. The ultimate goal is to create a roadmap detailing the design and technology choices for one or more km-scale detectors, which will be operational in the mid-2030s. The key sections of this report present the physics case and technical challenges, together with a comprehensive overview of the discussions at the workshop together with the main conclusions

    Copper Chelation via beta-alanine extends lifespan in a C. elegans model of Alzheimer's Disease

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    The leading hypothesis for Alzheimer's Disease (AD) has traditionally focused on the aggregation of Amyloid-ő≤ into amyloid plaques. However, research has yet to definitively prove the role of the amyloid peptide in the pathology of the disease. Given that all therapeutics targeting amyloid plaques have failed in clinical trials, with one exception, there is a need to explore alternative approaches to treatment of this disease. Therefore, we examined other factors that are altered during AD pathogenesis. Many AD patients have dysregulation of metal ions, such as copper and zinc, in addition to accumulation of Amyloid-ő≤. The interaction between Amyloid-ő≤ and copper can result in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS can cause damage to neurons and surrounding tissues resulting in degradation of the brain. Therefore, our work focuses on disrupting the interaction between Amyloid-ő≤ and copper via chelation therapy to prevent ROS formation and, in turn, reduce neurotoxicity. In this study, copper chelation with beta alanine reduced the amount of ROS produced in the brains of C. elegans expressing pan-neuronal Amyloid-ő≤, amino acids 1-42. In response to chelation, the expression of the antioxidant gene, gst-4, was also reduced. Importantly, there was also a positive correlation between copper chelation and increased lifespan in the Amyloid-ő≤ expressing C. elegans. Consistent with our previous in vitro work, Amyloid-ő≤ expression in vivo was not altered following treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that copper chelation has the potential to serve as an AD therapeutic resulting in increased longevity

    Terrestrial Very-Long-Baseline Atom Interferometry Workshop (TVLBAI 2023)

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    This document presents a summary of the 2023 Terrestrial Very-Long-Baseline Atom Interferometry Workshop hosted by CERN. The workshop brought together experts from around the world to discuss the exciting developments in large-scale atom interferometer (AI) prototypes and their potential for detecting ultralight dark matter and gravitational waves. The primary objective of the workshop was to lay the groundwork for an international TVLBAI proto-collaboration. This collaboration aims to unite researchers from different institutions to strategize and secure funding for terrestrial large-scale AI projects. The ultimate goal is to create a roadmap detailing the design and technology choices for one or more km-scale detectors, which will be operational in the mid-2030s. The key sections of this report present the physics case and technical challenges, together with a comprehensive overview of the discussions at the workshop together with the main conclusions

    Tailoring the Curing Kinetics of NBR-Based Rubber Compounds for Additive Manufacturing of Rod Seals

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    The additive manufacturing (AM) of elastomeric parts based on high-viscosity reinforced rubbers has increasingly become a topic of scientific research in recent years. In addition to the viscosity, which is several decades higher during processing than the viscosities of thermoplastics, the flowability of the compound after the printing process and the necessary chemical crosslinking of the printed component play a decisive role in producing an elastic, high-quality, and geometrically stable part. After the first technological achievements using the so-called additive manufacturing of elastomers (AME) process, the knowledge gained has to be transferred first to concrete industrial parts. Therefore, in this study, the cure kinetics of a conventional rubber compound are tailored to match the specific requirements for scorch safety in the additive manufacturing of an industrial 2-component rod seal based on an acrylonitrile butadiene rubber O-ring in combination with a thermoplastic polyurethane as the base body. Experimental tests on a test rig for rod seals demonstrate the functionality of this additively manufactured 2-component rod seal

    Cyber-Security-Herausforderungen im Kontext von Engineering 4.0

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    Der Cyberspace ist ein st√§ndig wachsendes und modernisiertes Umfeld, das angesichts der Interkonnektivit√§t Chancen f√ľr die digitale Transformation bietet. Aus der Integration der physischen Umgebung mit der virtuellen Welt entstehen jedoch auch Herausforderungen, die im √Ėkosystem der Industrie 4.0 gel√∂st werden m√ľssen. So f√ľhren Konnektivit√§t, Virtualisierung und Digitalisierung sowie Charakteristika des Engineerings (E4.0) zu Herausforderungen in Bezug auf die Cybersicherheit in einem √Ėkosystem, das Cyber-physische Systeme (CPS) und Digitale Zwillinge (DZ) integriert. Die Verwendung digitaler Ger√§te durch Konnektivit√§t im Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) kann die Angriffsfl√§che f√ľr Cyber-Attacken erh√∂hen. Daher soll in diesem Beitrag ein Ansatz f√ľr die wichtigsten Cybersicherheitsrisiken vorgestellt werden, die durch die Integration von I4.0-Technologien in Produktionsumgebungen entstehen k√∂nnen. Zudem wird ein spezifischer Fahrplan f√ľr die PLM-Cybersicherheit vorgestellt und Beitr√§ge zur Cybersicherheit im DZ er√∂rtert

    Additive Fertigung und Vulkanisation von Natur- und Synthesekautschuken

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    Additive manufacturing of thermoplastics and metals is a sustainable and established process in industry for the rapid production of individual technical components. For a long time, this technology was not accessible for the group of elastomers, or only to a limited extent in the form of thermoplastic elastomers or silicone rubbers. The development of the Additive Manufacturing of Elastomers (AME)-process has enabled the additive manufacturing of high viscosity rubbers. In future, additively manufactured rubber components may be used in technical logistics in particular. On the one hand, the supply of spare parts such as sealing and damping elements is possible, and on the other hand, the production of individual geometries for grippers in handling technology. For the additive manufacturing of rubber, an industrial 3D-printer was modified by a twin screw extruder, which can process rubber filament and deposit it on a printing plate in strand form, similar to the thermoplastic Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF)-process. The use of a screw extruder is necessary because the viscosity of the rubber does not decrease sufficiently with heating, making it impossible to guide the filament through conventional print heads for thermoplastic filaments. The AME-process is a two-step manufacturing process. First, the components are additively manufactured, followed by vulcanization in a high-pressure autoclave or heating oven. Single-part production is a particular challenge in this case, as the vulcanization time depends on the rubber compound and the component geometry. In order to avoid waste, it is therefore necessary to know the optimum vulcanization time before vulcanization. For this purpose, a simulation was developed and validated that outputs the degree of crosslinking in the component as a function of the vulcanization temperature and time.Die additive Fertigung von Thermoplasten und Metallen ist ein nachhaltiges und in der Industrie zur schnellen Herstellung von individuellen technischen Bauteilen bew√§hrtes Verfahren. Lange Zeit war diese Technologie f√ľr die Werkstoffgruppe der Elastomere nicht oder nur eingeschr√§nkt in Form von Thermoplastischen Elastomeren oder Silikonkautschuken zug√§nglich. Durch die Entwicklung des Additive Manufacturing of Elastomers (AME)-Verfahrens ist nun auch die additive Fertigung von hochviskosen Kautschuken m√∂glich. Besonders in der technischen Logistik k√∂nnen zuk√ľnftig additiv gefertigte Kautschukbauteile Einsatz finden. Einerseits ist die Bereitstellung von Ersatzteilen wie Dichtungs- und D√§mpferelementen m√∂glich, aber auch die Fertigung individueller Geometrien f√ľr Greifer in der Handhabungstechnik. Zur additiven Fertigung von Kautschuk wurde ein industrieller 3D-Drucker um einen Zweischneckenextruder erweitert, der Kautschukfilament verarbeiten und √§hnlich zum thermoplastischen Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF)-Verfahren strangf√∂rmig auf eine Druckplatte auftragen kann. Der Einsatz eines Schneckenextruders ist notwendig, da die Viskosit√§t des Kautschuks nicht ausreichend durch Erw√§rmung abnimmt und somit eine F√ľhrung des Filaments durch konventionelle Druckk√∂pfe f√ľr thermoplastische Filamente nicht m√∂glich ist. Das AME-Verfahren ist ein zweistufiges Fertigungsverfahren. Zuerst werden die Bauteile additiv gefertigt, anschlie√üend folgt die Vulkanisation in einem Hochdruckautoklav oder W√§rmeschrank. Hierbei ist besonders die Einzelteilfertigung eine Herausforderung, da die Vulkanisationszeit abh√§ngig von der Kautschukmischung und der Bauteilgeometrie ist. Um keinen Ausschuss zu produzieren ist es daher notwendig die optimale Vulkanisationszeit vor der Vulkanisation zu kennen. Hierf√ľr wurde eine Simulation, die den Vernetzungsgrad im Bauteil in Abh√§ngigkeit von der Vulkanisationstemperatur und -zeit ausgibt, entwickelt und validiert

    Multi-phenotype analyses of hemostatic traits with cardiovascular events reveal novel genetic associations

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    Background: Multi-phenotype analysis of genetically correlated phenotypes can increase the statistical power to detect loci associated with multiple traits, leading to the discovery of novel loci. This is the first study to date to comprehensively analyze the shared genetic effects within different hemostatic traits, and between these and their associated disease outcomes. Objectives: To discover novel genetic associations by combining summary data of correlated hemostatic traits and disease events. Methods: Summary statistics from genome wide-association studies (GWAS) from seven hemostatic traits (factor VII [FVII], factor VIII [FVIII], von Willebrand factor [VWF] factor XI [FXI], fibrinogen, tissue plasminogen activator [tPA], plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 [PAI-1]) and three major cardiovascular (CV) events (venous thromboembolism [VTE], coronary artery disease [CAD], ischemic stroke [IS]), were combined in 27 multi-trait combinations using metaUSAT. Genetic correlations between phenotypes were calculated using Linkage Disequilibrium Score Regression (LDSC). Newly associated loci were investigated for colocalization. We considered a significance threshold of 1.85¬†√ó¬†10‚ąí9 obtained after applying Bonferroni correction for the number of multi-trait combinations performed (n¬†=¬†27). Results: Across the 27 multi-trait analyses, we found 4 novel pleiotropic loci (XXYLT1, KNG1, SUGP1/MAU2, TBL2/MLXIPL) that were not significant in the original individual datasets, were not described in previous GWAS for the individual traits, and that presented a common associated variant between the studied phenotypes. Conclusions: The discovery of four novel loci contributes to the understanding of the relationship between hemostasis and CV events and elucidate common genetic factors between these traits

    Dataset associated with "Volcanic ash ice nucleation activity is variably reduced by aging in water and sulfuric acid: the effects of leaching, dissolution, and precipitation"

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    Volcanic ash nucleates ice when immersed in supercooled water, giving it the potential to influence weather and climate from local to global scales. However, the ice nucleation activity (INA) of ash can be modified by interaction with various chemical species during atmospheric transport. In the experimental study associated with this dataset, we show that the INA of two mineralogically distinct ash samples from Fuego and Astroni volcanoes is variably reduced when immersed in water or aqueous sulfuric acid for minutes to days. Aging in water decreases the INA of both ash samples by up to two orders of magnitude, possibly due to a reduction in surface crystallinity and cation availability accompanying leaching. Aging in sulfuric acid leads to minimal loss of INA for Fuego ash, which is proposed to reflect a quasi-equilibrium between leaching that removes ice-active sites and dissolution that reveals or creates new ones on the pyroxene phases present. Conversely, exposure to sulfuric acid reduces the INA of Astroni ash by one to two orders of magnitude, potentially due to selective dissolution of ice-active sites associated with surface microtextures on some K-feldspar phases. Analysis of dissolved element concentrations in the aged ash leachates indicates supersaturation of select mineral species which might have precipitated and so also contributed to altering the INA of the ash. These results highlight the key role that leaching, dissolution, and precipitation likely play in the aqueous aging of volcanic ash with respect to its INA
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