10,472 research outputs found

    Solving the excitation and chemical abundances in shocks: the case of HH1

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    We present deep spectroscopic (3600 - 24700 A) X-shooter observations of the bright Herbig-Haro object HH1, one of the best laboratories to study the chemical and physical modifications caused by protostellar shocks on the natal cloud. We observe atomic fine structure lines, HI, and He, recombination lines and H_2, ro-vibrational lines (more than 500 detections in total). Line emission was analyzed by means of Non Local Thermal Equilibiurm codes to derive the electron temperature and density, and, for the first time, we are able to accurately probe different physical regimes behind a dissociative shock. We find a temperature stratification in the range 4000 - 80000 K, and a significant correlation between temperature and ionization energy. Two density regimes are identified for the ionized gas, a more tenuous, spatially broad component (density about 10^3 cm^-3), and a more compact component (density > 10^5 cm^-3) likely associated with the hottest gas. A further neutral component is also evidenced, having temperature lass than 10000 K and density > 10^4 cm^-3. The gas fractional ionization was estimated solving the ionization equilibrium equations of atoms detected in different ionization stages. We find that neutral and fully ionized regions co-exist inside the shock. Also, indications in favor of at least partially dissociative shock as the main mechanism for molecular excitation are derived. Chemical abundances are estimated for the majority of the detected species. On average, abundances of non-refractory/refractory elements are lower than solar of about 0.15/0.5 dex. This testifies the presence of dust inside the medium, with a depletion factor of Iron of about 40%.Comment: Accepted by The Astrophysical Journa

    EMDR therapy for PTSD after motor vehicle accidents: meta-analytic evidence for specific treatment

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    Motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims may suffer both acute and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). With PTSD affecting social, interpersonal and occupational functioning, clinicians as well as the National Institute of Health are very interested in identifying the most effective psychological treatment to reduce PTSD. From research findings, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is considered as one of the effective treatment of PTSD. In this paper, we present the results of a meta-analysis of fMRI studies on PTSD after MVA through activation likelihood estimation. We found that PTSD following MVA is characterized by neural modifications in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a cerebral structure involved in fear-conditioning mechanisms. Basing on previous findings in both humans and animals, which demonstrate that desensitization techniques and extinction protocols act on the limbic system, the effectiveness of EMDR and of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) may be related to the fact that during these therapies the ACC is stimulated by desensitization

    Optical scattering resonances of single plasmonic nanoantennas

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    We investigate the far-field optical resonances of individual dimer nanoantennas using confocal scattering spectroscopy. Experiments on a single-antenna array with varying arm lengths and interparticle gap sizes show large spectral shifts of the plasmon modes due to a combination of geometrical resonances and plasmon hybridization. All resonances are considerably broadened compared to those of small nanorods in the quasistatic limit, which we attribute to a greatly enhanced radiative damping of the antenna modes. The scattering spectra are compared with rigorous model calculations that demonstrate both the near-field and far-field characteristics of a half-wave antenna.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    IR diagnostics of embedded jets: velocity resolved observations of the HH34 and HH1 jets

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    We present VLT-ISAAC medium resolution spectroscopy of the HH34 and HH1 jets. Our aim is to derive the kinematics and the physical parameters and to study how they vary with jet velocity. We use several important diagnostic lines such as [FeII] 1.644um, 1.600um and H2 2.122um. In the inner jet region of HH34 we find that both the atomic and molecular gas present two components at high and low velocity. The [FeII] LVC in HH34 is detected up to large distances from the source (>1000 AU), at variance with TTauri jets. In H2 2.122um, the LVC and HVC are spatially separated. We detect, for the first time, the fainter red-shifted counterpart down to the central source. In HH1, we trace the jet down to ~1" from the VLA1 driving source: the kinematics of this inner region is again characterised by the presence of two velocity components, one blue-shifted and one red-shifted with respect to the source LSR velocity. In the inner HH34 jet region, ne increases with decreasing velocity. Up to ~10" from the driving source, and along the whole HH1 jet an opposite behaviour is observed instead, with ne increasing with velocity. In both jets the mass flux is carried mainly by the high-velocity gas. A comparison between the position velocity diagrams and derived electron densities with models for MHD jet launching mechanisms has been performed for HH34. While the kinematical characteristics of the line emission at the jet base can be, at least qualitatively, reproduced by both X-winds and disc-wind models, none of these models can explain the extent of the LVC and the dependence of electron density with velocity that we observe. It is possible that the LVC in HH34 represents gas not directly ejected in the jet but instead denser ambient gas entrained by the high velocity collimated jet.Comment: A&A accepte

    Nanosized patterns as reference structures for macroscopic transport properties and vortex phases in YBCO films

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    This paper studies the striking correlation between nanosized structural patterns in YBCO films and macroscopic transport current. A nanosized network of parallel Josephson junctions laced by insulating dislocations is almost mimicking the grain boundary structural network. It contributes to the macroscopic properties and accounts for the strong intergranular pinning across the film in the intermediate temperature range. The correlation between the two networks enables to find out an outstanding scaling law in the (Jc,B) plane and to determine meaningful parameters concerning the matching between the vortex lattice and the intergranular defect lattice. Two asymptotic behaviors of the pinning force below the flux flow regime are checked: the corresponding vortex phases are clearly individuated.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Generalized sum rules of the nucleon in the constituent quark model

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    We study the generalized sum rules and polarizabilities of the nucleon in the framework of the hypercentral constituent quark model. We include in the calculation all the well known 3∗3^* and 4∗4^* resonances and consider all the generalized sum rules for which there are data available. To test the model dependence of the calculation, we compare our results to the results obtained in the harmonic oscillator CQM. We furthermore confront our results to the model-independent sum rules values and to the predictions of the phenomenological MAID model. The CQM calculations provide a good description of most of the presented generalized sum rules in the intermediate Q2Q^2 region (above ∼0.2\sim0.2 GeV2^2) while they encounter difficulties in describing these observables at low Q2Q^2, where the effects of the pion cloud, not included in the present calculation, are expected to be important.Comment: 26 pages, 10 figure
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