28,289 research outputs found

    Black hole state counting in loop quantum gravity

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    The two ways of counting microscopic states of black holes in the U(1) formulation of loop quantum gravity, one counting all allowed spin network labels j,m and the other only m labels, are discussed in some detail. The constraints on m are clarified and the map between the flux quantum numbers and m discussed. Configurations with |m|=j, which are sometimes sought after, are shown to be important only when large areas are involved. The discussion is extended to the SU(2) formulation.Comment: 5 page

    Counting of Black Hole Microstates

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    The entropy of a black hole can be obtained by counting states in loop quantum gravity. The dominant term depends on the Immirzi parameter involved in the quantization and is proportional to the area of the horizon, while there is a logarithmic correction with coefficient -1/2.Comment: 5 pages, revtex4, 1 figure; prepared for special issue of Indian Journal of Physics in memory of Amal Kumar Raychaudhuri; section on temperature shifted to hep-th/060512

    Entropy of Extremal Dyonic Black Holes

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    For extremal charged black holes, the thermodynamic entropy is proportional not to the area but to the mass or charges. This is demonstrated here for dyonic extremal black hole solutions of string theory. It is pointed out that these solutions have zero classical action although the area is nonzero. By combining the general form of the entropy allowed by thermodynamics with recent observations in the literature it is possible to fix the entropy almost completely.Comment: 8 pages, LATEX; it is pointed out that the classical action vanishe

    Structure and optical properties of Cd substituted ZnO (Zn1-xCdxO) nanostructures synthesized by high pressure solution route

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    We report synthesis of Cd substituted ZnO nanostructures (Zn1-xCdxO with x upto \approx .09) by high pressure solution growth method. The synthesized nanostructures comprise of nanocrystals that are both particles (~ 10-15 nm) and rods which grow along (002) direction as established by Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Rietveld analysis of the XRD data shows monotonous increase of the unit cell volume with the increase of Cd concentration. The optical absorption as well as the photoluminescence (PL) shows red shift on Cd substitution. The line width of the PL spectrum is related to the strain inhomogenity and it peaks in the region where the CdO phase separates from the Zn1-xCdxO nanostructures. The time resolved photoemission showed a long lived (~10ns) component. We propose that the PL behavior of the Zn1-xCdxO is dominated by strain in the sample with the redshift of the PL linked to the expansion of the unit cell volume on Cd substitution