51 research outputs found

    Presentation of DNA Methyltransferase 3 Beta Mutation with Immune Deficiency and Dilation of Aorta and Esophagus

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    Background: Immunodeficiency, Centromeric region instability, and Facial anomalies syndrome (ICF) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with Centromeric instability as a hallmark. Method: In this case report, we describe an Iranian 6-year-old male who was diagnosed with ICF syndrome. He had a history of recurrent infections, hydrocephalus report in pregnancy, failure to thrive, facial anomalies, global developmental delay, and umbilical hernia. Results: The investigation showed esophageal dilatation in barium swallow, ascending aortic dilatation in echocardiography and cutis laxa in skin biopsy. In laboratory data, impaired antibody function was observed. Finally, to find the probable causative genetic variant, a whole exome sequencing was performed. The data analysis using bioinformatics tools revealed c.1592G>A mutation in the exon 15 of DNMT3B. With respect to the diagnosis of ICF syndrome, our patient was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Conclusion: It is necessary to perform periodic neurologic and ophthalmologic examinations. Echocardiography must be done annually. In addition, the possibility of HSCT should be evaluate

    Bi-allelic truncating variants in CASP2 underlie a neurodevelopmental disorder with lissencephaly

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    Lissencephaly (LIS) is a malformation of cortical development due to deficient neuronal migration and abnormal formation of cerebral convolutions or gyri. Thirty-one LIS-associated genes have been previously described. Recently, biallelic pathogenic variants in CRADD and PIDD1, have associated with LIS impacting the previously established role of the PIDDosome in activating caspase-2. In this report, we describe biallelic truncating variants in CASP2, another subunit of PIDDosome complex. Seven patients from five independent families presenting with a neurodevelopmental phenotype were identified through GeneMatcher-facilitated international collaborations. Exome sequencing analysis was carried out and revealed two distinct novel homozygous (NM_032982.4:c.1156delT (p.Tyr386ThrfsTer25), and c.1174 C > T (p.Gln392Ter)) and compound heterozygous variants (c.[130 C > T];[876 + 1 G > T] p.[Arg44Ter];[?]) in CASP2 segregating within the families in a manner compatible with an autosomal recessive pattern. RNA studies of the c.876 + 1 G > T variant indicated usage of two cryptic splice donor sites, each introducing a premature stop codon. All patients from whom brain MRIs were available had a typical fronto-temporal LIS and pachygyria, remarkably resembling the CRADD and PIDD1-related neuroimaging findings. Other findings included developmental delay, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, hypotonia, seizure, poor social skills, and autistic traits. In summary, we present patients with CASP2-related ID, anterior-predominant LIS, and pachygyria similar to previously reported patients with CRADD and PIDD1-related disorders, expanding the genetic spectrum of LIS and lending support that each component of the PIDDosome complex is critical for normal development of the human cerebral cortex and brain function

    Biallelic variants in OGDH encoding oxoglutarate dehydrogenase lead to a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, movement disorder, and metabolic abnormalities

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    PURPOSE: This study aimed to establish the genetic cause of a novel autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, movement disorder, and metabolic abnormalities. METHODS: We performed a detailed clinical characterization of 4 unrelated individuals from consanguineous families with a neurodevelopmental disorder. We used exome sequencing or targeted-exome sequencing, cosegregation, in silico protein modeling, and functional analyses of variants in HEK293 cells and Drosophila melanogaster, as well as in proband-derived fibroblast cells. RESULTS: In the 4 individuals, we identified 3 novel homozygous variants in oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) (NM_002541.3), which encodes a subunit of the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. In silico homology modeling predicts that c.566C>T:p.(Pro189Leu) and c.890C>A:p.(Ser297Tyr) variants interfere with the structure and function of OGDH. Fibroblasts from individual 1 showed that the p.(Ser297Tyr) variant led to a higher degradation rate of the OGDH protein. OGDH protein with p.(Pro189Leu) or p.(Ser297Tyr) variants in HEK293 cells showed significantly lower levels than the wild-type protein. Furthermore, we showed that expression of Drosophila Ogdh (dOgdh) carrying variants homologous to p.(Pro189Leu) or p.(Ser297Tyr), failed to rescue developmental lethality caused by loss of dOgdh. SpliceAI, a variant splice predictor, predicted that the c.935G>A:p.(Arg312Lys)/p.(Phe264_Arg312del) variant impacts splicing, which was confirmed through a mini-gene assay in HEK293 cells. CONCLUSION: We established that biallelic variants in OGDH cause a neurodevelopmental disorder with metabolic and movement abnormalities

    Biallelic variants in OGDH encoding oxoglutarate dehydrogenase lead to a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, movement disorder, and metabolic abnormalities

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    Purpose: This study aimed to establish the genetic cause of a novel autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, movement disorder, and metabolic abnormalities.Methods: We performed a detailed clinical characterization of 4 unrelated individuals from consanguineous families with a neurodevelopmental disorder. We used exome sequencing or targeted-exome sequencing, cosegregation, in silico protein modeling, and functional analyses of variants in HEK293 cells and Drosophila melanogaster, as well as in proband-derived fibroblast cells.Results: In the 4 individuals, we identified 3 novel homozygous variants in oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) (NM_002541.3), which encodes a subunit of the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. In silico homology modeling predicts that c.566C > T:p.(Pro189Leu) and c.890C > A:p.(Ser297Tyr) variants interfere with the structure and function of OGDH. Fibroblasts from individual 1 showed that the p.(Ser297Tyr) variant led to a higher degradation rate of the OGDH protein. OGDH protein with p.(Pro189Leu) or p.(Ser297Tyr) variants in HEK293 cells showed significantly lower levels than the wild-type protein. Furthermore, we showed that expression of Drosophila Ogdh (dOgdh) carrying variants homologous to p.(Pro189Leu) or p.(Ser297Tyr), failed to rescue developmental lethality caused by loss of dOgdh. SpliceAI, a variant splice predictor, predicted that the c.935G > A:p.(Arg312Lys)/p.(Phe264_Arg312del) variant impacts splicing, which was confirmed through a mini-gene assay in HEK293 cells.Conclusion: We established that biallelic variants in OGDH cause a neurodevelopmental disorder with metabolic and movement abnormalities.(c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. This is an open access article under the CC BY licensePeer reviewe

    Evaluating the association of biallelic OGDHL variants with significant phenotypic heterogeneity

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    BACKGROUND: Biallelic variants in OGDHL, encoding part of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, have been associated with highly heterogeneous neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the validity of this association remains to be confirmed. A second OGDHL patient cohort was recruited to carefully assess the gene-disease relationship. METHODS: Using an unbiased genotype-first approach, we screened large, multiethnic aggregated sequencing datasets worldwide for biallelic OGDHL variants. We used CRISPR/Cas9 to generate zebrafish knockouts of ogdhl, ogdh paralogs, and dhtkd1 to investigate functional relationships and impact during development. Functional complementation with patient variant transcripts was conducted to systematically assess protein functionality as a readout for pathogenicity. RESULTS: A cohort of 14 individuals from 12 unrelated families exhibited highly variable clinical phenotypes, with the majority of them presenting at least one additional variant, potentially accounting for a blended phenotype and complicating phenotypic understanding. We also uncovered extreme clinical heterogeneity and high allele frequencies, occasionally incompatible with a fully penetrant recessive disorder. Human cDNA of previously described and new variants were tested in an ogdhl zebrafish knockout model, adding functional evidence for variant reclassification. We disclosed evidence of hypomorphic alleles as well as a loss-of-function variant without deleterious effects in zebrafish variant testing also showing discordant familial segregation, challenging the relationship of OGDHL as a conventional Mendelian gene. Going further, we uncovered evidence for a complex compensatory relationship among OGDH, OGDHL, and DHTKD1 isoenzymes that are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders and exhibit complex transcriptional compensation patterns with partial functional redundancy. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of genetic, clinical, and functional studies, we formed three hypotheses in which to frame observations: biallelic OGDHL variants lead to a highly variable monogenic disorder, variants in OGDHL are following a complex pattern of inheritance, or they may not be causative at all. Our study further highlights the continuing challenges of assessing the validity of reported disease-gene associations and effects of variants identified in these genes. This is particularly more complicated in making genetic diagnoses based on identification of variants in genes presenting a highly heterogenous phenotype such as "OGDHL-related disorders"

    Mimicry and well known genetic friends: molecular diagnosis in an Iranian cohort of suspected Bartter syndrome and proposition of an algorithm for clinical differential diagnosis.

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    BACKGROUND: Bartter Syndrome is a rare, genetically heterogeneous, mainly autosomal recessively inherited condition characterized by hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. Mutations in several genes encoding for ion channels localizing to the renal tubules including SLC12A1, KCNJ1, BSND, CLCNKA, CLCNKB, MAGED2 and CASR have been identified as underlying molecular cause. No genetically defined cases have been described in the Iranian population to date. Like for other rare genetic disorders, implementation of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies has greatly facilitated genetic diagnostics and counseling over the last years. In this study, we describe the clinical, biochemical and genetic characteristics of patients from 15 Iranian families with a clinical diagnosis of Bartter Syndrome. RESULTS: Age range of patients included in this study was 3 months to 6 years and all patients showed hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. 3 patients additionally displayed hypercalciuria, with evidence of nephrocalcinosis in one case. Screening by Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) and long range PCR revealed that 12/17 patients (70%) had a deletion of the entire CLCNKB gene that was previously identified as the most common cause of Bartter Syndrome in other populations. 4/17 individuals (approximately 25% of cases) were found to suffer in fact from pseudo-Bartter syndrome resulting from congenital chloride diarrhea due to a novel homozygous mutation in the SLC26A3 gene, Pendred syndrome due to a known homozygous mutation in SLC26A4, Cystic Fibrosis (CF) due to a novel mutation in CFTR and apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome due to a novel homozygous loss of function mutation in HSD11B2 gene. 1 case (5%) remained unsolved. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate deletion of CLCNKB is the most common cause of Bartter syndrome in Iranian patients and we show that age of onset of clinical symptoms as well as clinical features amongst those patients are variable. Further, using WES we were able to prove that nearly 1/4 patients in fact suffered from Pseudo-Bartter Syndrome, reversing the initial clinical diagnosis with important impact on the subsequent treatment and clinical follow up pathway. Finally, we propose an algorithm for clinical differential diagnosis of Bartter Syndrome

    Lunapark deficiency leads to an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental phenotype with a degenerative course, epilepsy and distinct brain anomalies

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    LNPK encodes a conserved membrane protein that stabilizes the junctions of the tubular endoplasmic reticulum network playing crucial roles in diverse biological functions. Recently, homozygous variants in LNPK were shown to cause a neurodevelopmental disorder (OMIM#618090) in four patients displaying developmental delay, epilepsy and nonspecific brain malformations including corpus callosum hypoplasia and variable impairment of cerebellum. We sought to delineate the molecular and phenotypic spectrum of LNPK-related disorder. Exome or genome sequencing was carried out in 11 families. Thorough clinical and neuroradiological evaluation was performed for all the affected individuals, including review of previously reported patients. We identified 12 distinct homozygous loss-of-function variants in 16 individuals presenting with moderate to profound developmental delay, cognitive impairment, regression, refractory epilepsy and a recognizable neuroimaging pattern consisting of corpus callosum hypoplasia and signal alterations of the forceps minor ('ear-of-the-lynx' sign), variably associated with substantia nigra signal alterations, mild brain atrophy, short midbrain and cerebellar hypoplasia/atrophy. In summary, we define the core phenotype of LNPK-related disorder and expand the list of neurological disorders presenting with the 'ear-of-the-lynx' sign suggesting a possible common underlying mechanism related to endoplasmic reticulum-phagy dysfunction

    Expanding the clinical phenotype of IARS2-related mitochondrial disease.

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    BACKGROUND: IARS2 encodes a mitochondrial isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, a highly conserved nuclear-encoded enzyme required for the charging of tRNAs with their cognate amino acid for translation. Recently, pathogenic IARS2 variants have been identified in a number of patients presenting broad clinical phenotypes with autosomal recessive inheritance. These phenotypes range from Leigh and West syndrome to a new syndrome abbreviated CAGSSS that is characterised by cataracts, growth hormone deficiency, sensory neuropathy, sensorineural hearing loss, and skeletal dysplasia, as well as cataract with no additional anomalies. METHODS: Genomic DNA from Iranian probands from two families with consanguineous parental background and overlapping CAGSSS features were subjected to exome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. RESULTS: Exome sequencing and data analysis revealed a novel homozygous missense variant (c.2625C > T, p.Pro909Ser, NM_018060.3) within a 14.3 Mb run of homozygosity in proband 1 and a novel homozygous missense variant (c.2282A > G, p.His761Arg) residing in an ~ 8 Mb region of homozygosity in a proband of the second family. Patient-derived fibroblasts from proband 1 showed normal respiratory chain enzyme activity, as well as unchanged oxidative phosphorylation protein subunits and IARS2 levels. Homology modelling of the known and novel amino acid residue substitutions in IARS2 provided insight into the possible consequence of these variants on function and structure of the protein. CONCLUSIONS: This study further expands the phenotypic spectrum of IARS2 pathogenic variants to include two patients (patients 2 and 3) with cataract and skeletal dysplasia and no other features of CAGSSS to the possible presentation of the defects in IARS2. Additionally, this study suggests that adult patients with CAGSSS may manifest central adrenal insufficiency and type II esophageal achalasia and proposes that a variable sensorineural hearing loss onset, proportionate short stature, polyneuropathy, and mild dysmorphic features are possible, as seen in patient 1. Our findings support that even though biallelic IARS2 pathogenic variants can result in a distinctive, clinically recognisable phenotype in humans, it can also show a wide range of clinical presentation from severe pediatric neurological disorders of Leigh and West syndrome to both non-syndromic cataract and cataract accompanied by skeletal dysplasia

    Bi-allelic ACBD6 variants lead to a neurodevelopmental syndrome with progressive and complex movement disorders

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    The acyl-CoA-binding domain-containing protein 6 (ACBD6) is ubiquitously expressed, plays a role in the acylation of lipids and proteins, and regulates the N-myristoylation of proteins via N-myristoyltransferase enzymes (NMTs). However, its precise function in cells is still unclear, as is the consequence of ACBD6 defects on human pathophysiology. Utilizing exome sequencing and extensive international data sharing efforts, we identified 45 affected individuals from 28 unrelated families (consanguinity 93%) with bi-allelic pathogenic, predominantly loss-of-function (18/20) variants in ACBD6. We generated zebrafish and Xenopus tropicalis acbd6 knockouts by CRISPR/Cas9 and characterized the role of ACBD6 on protein N-myristoylation with YnMyr chemical proteomics in the model organisms and human cells, with the latter also being subjected further to ACBD6 peroxisomal localization studies. The affected individuals (23 males and 22 females), with ages ranging from 1 to 50 years old, typically present with a complex and progressive disease involving moderate-to-severe global developmental delay/intellectual disability (100%) with significant expressive language impairment (98%), movement disorders (97%), facial dysmorphism (95%), and mild cerebellar ataxia (85%) associated with gait impairment (94%), limb spasticity/hypertonia (76%), oculomotor (71%) and behavioural abnormalities (65%), overweight (59%), microcephaly (39%) and epilepsy (33%). The most conspicuous and common movement disorder was dystonia (94%), frequently leading to early-onset progressive postural deformities (97%), limb dystonia (55%), and cervical dystonia (31%). A jerky tremor in the upper limbs (63%), a mild head tremor (59%), parkinsonism/hypokinesia developing with advancing age (32%), and simple motor and vocal tics were among other frequent movement disorders. Midline brain malformations including corpus callosum abnormalities (70%), hypoplasia/agenesis of the anterior commissure (66%), short midbrain and small inferior cerebellar vermis (38% each), as well as hypertrophy of the clava (24%) were common neuroimaging findings. acbd6-deficient zebrafish and Xenopus models effectively recapitulated many clinical phenotypes reported in patients including movement disorders, progressive neuromotor impairment, seizures, microcephaly, craniofacial dysmorphism, and midbrain defects accompanied by developmental delay with increased mortality over time. Unlike ACBD5, ACBD6 did not show a peroxisomal localisation and ACBD6-deficiency was not associated with altered peroxisomal parameters in patient fibroblasts. Significant differences in YnMyr-labelling were observed for 68 co- and 18 post-translationally N-myristoylated proteins in patient-derived fibroblasts. N-Myristoylation was similarly affected in acbd6-deficient zebrafish and Xenopus tropicalis models, including Fus, Marcks, and Chchd-related proteins implicated in neurological diseases. The present study provides evidence that bi-allelic pathogenic variants in ACBD6 lead to a distinct neurodevelopmental syndrome accompanied by complex and progressive cognitive and movement disorders
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