93 research outputs found

    Individual differences in trust evaluations are shaped mostly by environments, not genes

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    Data deposition: Data, code, and materials are available at the Open Science Framework, https://osf.io/35zf8/?view_only=e76c6755dcea4be2adc5b075cae896e8. The face impression tests can be viewed at https://www.testable.org/experiment/855/674205/start. This article contains supporting information online at https://www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1073/pnas.1920131117/-/DCSupplemental.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Exposure to early childhood maltreatment and its effect over time on social cognition

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    Social cognitive deficits can have many negative consequences, spanning social withdrawal to psychopathology. Prior work has shown that child maltreatment may associate with poorer social cognitive skills in later life. However, no studies have examined this association from early childhood into adolescence. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 4,438), we examined the association between maltreatment (caregiver physical or emotional abuse; sexual or physical abuse), assessed repeatedly (every 1-3 years) from birth to age 9, and social cognitive skills at ages 7.5, 10.5, and 14 years. We evaluated the role of both the developmental timing (defined by age at exposure) and accumulation of maltreatment (defined as the number of occasions exposed) using a least angle regression variable selection procedure, followed by structural equation modeling. Among females, accumulation of maltreatment explained the most variation in social cognitive skills. For males, no significant associations were found. These findings underscore the importance of early intervention to minimize the accumulation of maltreatment and showcase the importance of prospective studies to understand the development of social cognition over time

    Returning Individual Research Results from Digital Phenotyping in Psychiatry

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    Psychiatry is rapidly adopting digital phenotyping and artificial intelligence/machine learning tools to study mental illness based on tracking participants’ locations, online activity, phone and text message usage, heart rate, sleep, physical activity, and more. Existing ethical frameworks for return of individual research results (IRRs) are inadequate to guide researchers for when, if, and how to return this unprecedented number of potentially sensitive results about each participant’s real-world behavior. To address this gap, we convened an interdisciplinary expert working group, supported by a National Institute of Mental Health grant. Building on established guidelines and the emerging norm of returning results in participant-centered research, we present a novel framework specific to the ethical, legal, and social implications of returning IRRs in digital phenotyping research. Our framework offers researchers, clinicians, and Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) urgently needed guidance, and the principles developed here in the context of psychiatry will be readily adaptable to other therapeutic areas

    Prior Sexual Trauma Exposure Impacts Posttraumatic Dysfunction and Neural Circuitry Following a Recent Traumatic Event in the AURORA Study

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    Background: Prior sexual trauma (ST) is associated with greater risk for posttraumatic stress disorder after a subsequent traumatic event; however, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain opaque. We investigated longitudinal posttraumatic dysfunction and amygdala functional dynamics following admission to an emergency department for new primarily nonsexual trauma in participants with and without previous ST. Methods: Participants (N = 2178) were recruited following acute trauma exposure (primarily motor vehicle collision). A subset (n = 242) completed magnetic resonance imaging that included a fearful faces task and a resting-state scan 2 weeks after the trauma. We investigated associations between prior ST and several dimensions of posttraumatic symptoms over 6 months. We further assessed amygdala activation and connectivity differences between groups with or without prior ST. Results: Prior ST was associated with greater posttraumatic depression (F1,1120 = 28.35, p = 1.22 × 10−7, ηp2 = 0.06), anxiety (F1,1113 = 17.43, p = 3.21 × 10−5, ηp2 = 0.05), and posttraumatic stress disorder (F1,1027 = 11.34, p = 7.85 × 10−4, ηp2 = 0.04) severity and more maladaptive beliefs about pain (F1,1113 = 8.51, p = .004, ηp2 = 0.02) but was not related to amygdala reactivity to fearful versus neutral faces (all ps \u3e .05). A secondary analysis revealed an interaction between ST and lifetime trauma load on the left amygdala to visual cortex connectivity (peak Z value: −4.41, corrected p \u3c .02). Conclusions: Findings suggest that prior ST is associated with heightened posttraumatic dysfunction following a new trauma exposure but not increased amygdala activity. In addition, ST may interact with lifetime trauma load to alter neural circuitry in visual processing regions following acute trauma exposure. Further research should probe the relationship between trauma type and visual circuitry in the acute aftermath of trauma

    Recontacting biobank participants to collect lifestyle, behavioural and cognitive information via online questionnaires : lessons from a pilot study within FinnGen

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    OBJECTIVES: To recontact biobank participants and collect cognitive, behavioural and lifestyle information via a secure online platform. DESIGN: Biobank-based recontacting pilot study. SETTING: Three Finnish biobanks (Helsinki, Auria, Tampere) recruiting participants from February 2021 to July 2021. PARTICIPANTS: All eligible invitees were enrolled in FinnGen by their biobanks (Helsinki, Auria, Tampere), had available genetic data and were >18 years old. Individuals with severe neuropsychiatric disease or cognitive or physical disabilities were excluded. Lastly, 5995 participants were selected based on their polygenic score for cognitive abilities and invited to the study. Among invitees, 1115 had successfully participated and completed the study questionnaire(s). OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the participation rate among study invitees. Secondary outcomes included questionnaire completion rate, quality of data collected and comparison of participation rate boosting strategies. RESULTS: The overall participation rate was 18.6% among all invitees and 23.1% among individuals aged 18-69. A second reminder letter yielded an additional 9.7% participation rate in those who did not respond to the first invitation. Recontacting participants via an online healthcare portal yielded lower participation than recontacting via physical letter. The completion rate of the questionnaire and cognitive tests was high (92% and 85%, respectively), and measurements were overall reliable among participants. For example, the correlation (r) between self-reported body mass index and that collected by the biobanks was 0.92. CONCLUSION: In summary, this pilot suggests that recontacting FinnGen participants with the goal to collect a wide range of cognitive, behavioural and lifestyle information without additional engagement results in a low participation rate, but with reliable data. We suggest that such information be collected at enrolment, if possible, rather than via post hoc recontacting.publishedVersionPeer reviewe