3,277 research outputs found

    The generalization of the Regge-Wheeler equation for self-gravitating matter fields

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    It is shown that the dynamical evolution of perturbations on a static spacetime is governed by a standard pulsation equation for the extrinsic curvature tensor. The centerpiece of the pulsation equation is a wave operator whose spatial part is manifestly self-adjoint. In contrast to metric formulations, the curvature-based approach to gravitational perturbation theory generalizes in a natural way to self-gravitating matter fields. For a certain relevant subspace of perturbations the pulsation operator is symmetric with respect to a positive inner product and therefore allows spectral theory to be applied. In particular, this is the case for odd-parity perturbations of spherically symmetric background configurations. As an example, the pulsation equations for self-gravitating, non-Abelian gauge fields are explicitly shown to be symmetric in the gravitational, the Yang Mills, and the off-diagonal sector.Comment: 4 pages, revtex, no figure

    The Stern-Gerlach Experiment Revisited

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    The Stern-Gerlach-Experiment (SGE) of 1922 is a seminal benchmark experiment of quantum physics providing evidence for several fundamental properties of quantum systems. Based on today's knowledge we illustrate the different benchmark results of the SGE for the development of modern quantum physics and chemistry. The SGE provided the first direct experimental evidence for angular momentum quantization in the quantum world and thus also for the existence of directional quantization of all angular momenta in the process of measurement. It measured for the first time a ground state property of an atom, it produced for the first time a `spin-polarized' atomic beam, it almost revealed the electron spin. The SGE was the first fully successful molecular beam experiment with high momentum-resolution by beam measurements in vacuum. This technique provided a new kinematic microscope with which inner atomic or nuclear properties could be investigated. The original SGE is described together with early attempts by Einstein, Ehrenfest, Heisenberg, and others to understand directional quantization in the SGE. Heisenberg's and Einstein's proposals of an improved multi-stage SGE are presented. The first realization of these proposals by Stern, Phipps, Frisch and Segr\`e is described. The set-up suggested by Einstein can be considered an anticipation of a Rabi-apparatus. Recent theoretical work is mentioned in which the directional quantization process and possible interference effects of the two different spin states are investigated. In full agreement with the results of the new quantum theory directional quantization appears as a general and universal feature of quantum measurements. One experimental example for such directional quantization in scattering processes is shown. Last not least, the early history of the `almost' discovery of the electron spin in the SGE is revisited.Comment: 50pp, 17 fig

    On the exciton binding energy in a quantum well

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    We consider a model describing the one-dimensional confinement of an exciton in a symmetrical, rectangular quantum-well structure and derive upper and lower bounds for the binding energy EbE_b of the exciton. Based on these bounds, we study the dependence of EbE_b on the width of the confining potential with a higher accuracy than previous reports. For an infinitely deep potential the binding energy varies as expected from 1Ry1 Ry at large widths to 4Ry4 Ry at small widths. For a finite potential, but without consideration of a mass mismatch or a dielectric mismatch, we substantiate earlier results that the binding energy approaches the value 1Ry1 Ry for both small and large widths, having a characteristic peak for some intermediate size of the slab. Taking the mismatch into account, this result will in general no longer be true. For the specific case of a Ga1−xAlxAs/GaAs/Ga1−xAlxAsGa_{1-x}Al_{x}As/GaAs/Ga_{1-x}Al_{x}As quantum-well structure, however, and in contrast to previous findings, the peak structure is shown to survive.Comment: 32 pages, ReVTeX, including 9 figure

    Money in monetary policy design: monetary cross-checking in the New-Keynesian model

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    In the New-Keynesian model, optimal interest rate policy under uncertainty is formulated without reference to monetary aggregates as long as certain standard assumptions on the distributions of unobservables are satisfied. The model has been criticized for failing to explain common trends in money growth and inflation, and that therefore money should be used as a cross-check in policy formulation (see Lucas (2007)). We show that the New-Keynesian model can explain such trends if one allows for the possibility of persistent central bank misperceptions. Such misperceptions motivate the search for policies that include additional robustness checks. In earlier work, we proposed an interest rate rule that is near-optimal in normal times but includes a cross-check with monetary information. In case of unusual monetary trends, interest rates are adjusted. In this paper, we show in detail how to derive the appropriate magnitude of the interest rate adjustment following a significant cross-check with monetary information, when the New-Keynesian model is the central bank’s preferred model. The cross-check is shown to be effective in offsetting persistent deviations of inflation due to central bank misperceptions. Keywords: Monetary Policy, New-Keynesian Model, Money, Quantity Theory, European Central Bank, Policy Under Uncertaint

    Disorder-Induced Resistive Anomaly Near Ferromagnetic Phase Transitions

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    We show that the resistivity rho(T) of disordered ferromagnets near, and above, the Curie temperature T_c generically exhibits a stronger anomaly than the scaling-based Fisher-Langer prediction. Treating transport beyond the Boltzmann description, we find that within mean-field theory, d\rho/dT exhibits a |T-T_c|^{-1/2} singularity near T_c. Our results, being solely due to impurities, are relevant to ferromagnets with low T_c, such as SrRuO3 or diluted magnetic semiconductors, whose mobility near T_c is limited by disorder.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures; V2: with a few clarifications, as publishe

    Observing Brownian motion in vibration-fluidized granular matter

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    At the beginning of last century, Gerlach and Lehrer observed the rotational Brownian motion of a very fine wire immersed in an equilibrium environment, a gas. This simple experiment eventually permitted the full development of one of the most important ideas of equilibrium statistical mechanics: the very complicated many-particle problem of a large number of molecules colliding with the wire, can be represented by two macroscopic parameters only, namely viscosity and the temperature. Can this idea, mathematically developed in the so-called Langevin model and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem be used to describe systems that are far from equilibrium? Here we address the question and reproduce the Gerlach and Lehrer experiment in an archetype non-equilibrium system, by immersing a sensitive torsion oscillator in a granular system of millimetre-size grains, fluidized by strong external vibrations. The vibro-fluidized granular medium is a driven environment, with continuous injection and dissipation of energy, and the immersed oscillator can be seen as analogous to an elastically bound Brownian particle. We show, by measuring the noise and the susceptibility, that the experiment can be treated, in first approximation, with the same formalism as in the equilibrium case, giving experimental access to a ''granular viscosity'' and an ''effective temperature'', however anisotropic and inhomogeneous, and yielding the surprising result that the vibro-fluidized granular matter behaves as a ''thermal'' bath satisfying a fluctuation-dissipation relation

    Mean parameter model for the Pekar-Fr\"{o}hlich polaron in a multilayered heterostructure

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    The polaron energy and the effective mass are calculated for an electron confined in a finite quantum well constructed of GaAs/AlxGa1−xAsGaAs/Al_x Ga_{1-x} As layers. To simplify the study we suggest a model in which parameters of a medium are averaged over the ground-state wave function. The rectangular and the Rosen-Morse potential are used as examples. To describe the confined electron properties explicitly to the second order of perturbations in powers of the electron-phonon coupling constant we use the exact energy-dependent Green function for the Rosen-Morse confining potential. In the case of the rectangular potential, the sum over all intermediate virtual states is calculated. The comparison is made with the often used leading term approximation when only the ground-state is taken into account as a virtual state. It is shown that the results are quite different, so the incorporation of all virtual states and especially those of the continuous spectrum is essential. Our model reproduces the correct three-dimensional asymptotics at both small and large widths. We obtained a rather monotonous behavior of the polaron energy as a function of the confining potential width and found a peak of the effective mass. The comparison is made with theoretical results by other authors. We found that our model gives practically the same (or very close) results as the explicit calculations for potential widths L≥10A˚L \geq 10 \AA.Comment: 12 pages, LaTeX, including 5 PS-figures, subm. to Phys. Rev. B, new data are discusse

    The astrometric Gaia-FUN-SSO observation campaign of 99 942 Apophis

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    Astrometric observations performed by the Gaia Follow-Up Network for Solar System Objects (Gaia-FUN-SSO) play a key role in ensuring that moving objects first detected by ESA's Gaia mission remain recoverable after their discovery. An observation campaign on the potentially hazardous asteroid (99 942) Apophis was conducted during the asteroid's latest period of visibility, from 12/21/2012 to 5/2/2013, to test the coordination and evaluate the overall performance of the Gaia-FUN-SSO . The 2732 high quality astrometric observations acquired during the Gaia-FUN-SSO campaign were reduced with the Platform for Reduction of Astronomical Images Automatically (PRAIA), using the USNO CCD Astrograph Catalogue 4 (UCAC4) as a reference. The astrometric reduction process and the precision of the newly obtained measurements are discussed. We compare the residuals of astrometric observations that we obtained using this reduction process to data sets that were individually reduced by observers and accepted by the Minor Planet Center. We obtained 2103 previously unpublished astrometric positions and provide these to the scientific community. Using these data we show that our reduction of this astrometric campaign with a reliable stellar catalog substantially improves the quality of the astrometric results. We present evidence that the new data will help to reduce the orbit uncertainty of Apophis during its close approach in 2029. We show that uncertainties due to geolocations of observing stations, as well as rounding of astrometric data can introduce an unnecessary degradation in the quality of the resulting astrometric positions. Finally, we discuss the impact of our campaign reduction on the recovery process of newly discovered asteroids.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&

    Coupled surface polaritons and the Casimir force

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    The Casimir force between metallic plates made of realistic materials is evaluated for distances in the nanometer range. A spectrum over real frequencies is introduced and shows narrow peaks due to surface resonances (plasmon polaritons or phonon polaritons) that are coupled across the vacuum gap. We demonstrate that the Casimir force originates from the attraction (repulsion) due to the corresponding symmetric (antisymmetric) eigenmodes, respectively. This picture is used to derive a simple analytical estimate of the Casimir force at short distances. We recover the result known for Drude metals without absorption and compute the correction for weakly absorbing materials.Comment: revised version submitted to Phys. Rev. A, 06 November 200

    Variational study of the Holstein polaron

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    The paper deals with the ground and the first excited state of the polaron in the one dimensional Holstein model. Various variational methods are used to investigate both the weak coupling and strong coupling case, as well as the crossover regime between them. Two of the methods, which are presented here for the first time, introduce interesting elements to the understanding of the nature of the polaron. Reliable numerical evidence is found that, in the strong coupling regime, the ground and the first excited state of the self-trapped polaron are well described within the adiabatic limit. The lattice vibration modes associated with the self-trapped polarons are analyzed in detail, and the frequency softening of the vibration mode at the central site of the small polaron is estimated. It is shown that the first excited state of the system in the strong coupling regime corresponds to the excitation of the soft phonon mode within the polaron. In the crossover regime, the ground and the first excited state of the system can be approximated by the anticrossing of the self-trapped and the delocalized polaron state. In this way, the connection between the behavior of the ground and the first excited state is qualitatively explained.Comment: 11 pages, 4 figures, PRB 65, 14430
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