28 research outputs found

    Multiple Sklerose: Suszeptibilität, Triggerfaktoren und Biomarker

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    Multiple Sklerose: Suszeptibilität, Triggerfaktoren und Biomarker

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    Twin study reveals non-heritable immune perturbations in multiple sclerosis

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    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system underpinned by partially understood genetic risk factors and environmental triggers and their undefined interactions1,2^{1,2}. Here we investigated the peripheral immune signatures of 61 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for MS to dissect the influence of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Using complementary multimodal high-throughput and high-dimensional single-cell technologies in conjunction with data-driven computational tools, we identified an inflammatory shift in a monocyte cluster of twins with MS, coupled with the emergence of a population of IL-2 hyper-responsive transitional naive helper T cells as MS-related immune alterations. By integrating data on the immune profiles of healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, we estimated the variance in CD25 expression by helper T cells displaying a naive phenotype to be largely driven by genetic and shared early environmental influences. Nonetheless, the expanding helper T cells of twins with MS, which were also elevated in non-twin patients with MS, emerged independent of the individual genetic makeup. These cells expressed central nervous system-homing receptors, exhibited a dysregulated CD25–IL-2 axis, and their proliferative capacity positively correlated with MS severity. Together, our matched-pair analysis of the extended twin approach allowed us to discern genetically and environmentally determined features of an MS-associated immune signature

    Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple sclerosis: a position paper and registry outline

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    Background: While substantial progress has been made in the development of disease-modifying medications for multiple sclerosis (MS), a high percentage of treated patients still show progression and persistent inflammatory activity. Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) aims at eliminating a pathogenic immune repertoire through intense short-term immunosuppression that enables subsequent regeneration of a new and healthy immune system to re-establish immune tolerance for a long period of time. A number of mostly open-label, uncontrolled studies conducted over the past 20 years collected about 4000 cases. They uniformly reported high efficacy of AHSCT in controlling MS inflammatory disease activity, more markedly beneficial in relapsing-remitting MS. Immunological studies provided evidence for qualitative immune resetting following AHSCT. These data and improved safety profiles of transplantation procedures spurred interest in using AHSCT as a treatment option for MS. Objective: To develop expert consensus recommendations on AHSCT in Germany and outline a registry study project. Methods: An open call among MS neurologists as well as among experts in stem cell transplantation in Germany started in December 2021 to join a series of virtual meetings. Results: We provide a consensus-based opinion paper authored by 25 experts on the up-to-date optimal use of AHSCT in managing MS based on the Swiss criteria. Current data indicate that patients who are most likely to benefit from AHSCT have relapsing-remitting MS and are young, ambulatory and have high disease activity. Treatment data with AHSCT will be collected within the German REgistry Cohort of autologous haematopoietic stem CeLl trAnsplantation In MS (RECLAIM). Conclusion: Further clinical trials, including registry-based analyses, are urgently needed to better define the patient characteristics, efficacy and safety profile of AHSCT compared with other high-efficacy therapies and to optimally position it as a treatment option in different MS disease stages. Keywords: Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), multiple sclerosis, registry study, treatment recommendation

    Genome-wide significant association with seven novel multiple sclerosis risk loci

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    Objective: A recent large-scale study in multiple sclerosis (MS) using the ImmunoChip platform reported on 11 loci that showed suggestive genetic association with MS. Additional data in sufficiently sized and independent data sets are needed to assess whether these loci represent genuine MS risk factors. Methods: The lead SNPs of all 11 loci were genotyped in 10 796 MS cases and 10 793 controls from Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands, Austria and Russia, that were independent from the previously reported cohorts. Association analyses were performed using logistic regression based on an additive model. Summary effect size estimates were calculated using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: Seven of the 11 tested SNPs showed significant association with MS susceptibility in the 21 589 individuals analysed here. Meta-analysis across our and previously published MS case-control data (total sample size n=101 683) revealed novel genome-wide significant association with MS susceptibility (p<5×10−8) for all seven variants. This included SNPs in or near LOC100506457 (rs1534422, p=4.03×10−12), CD28 (rs6435203, p=1.35×10−9), LPP (rs4686953, p=3.35×10−8), ETS1 (rs3809006, p=7.74×10−9), DLEU1 (rs806349, p=8.14×10−12), LPIN3 (rs6072343, p=7.16×10−12) and IFNGR2 (rs9808753, p=4.40×10−10). Cis expression quantitative locus effects were observed in silico for rs6435203 on CD28 and for rs9808753 on several immunologically relevant genes in the IFNGR2 locus. Conclusions: This study adds seven loci to the list of genuine MS genetic risk factors and further extends the list of established loci shared across autoimmune diseases

    Genome-wide significant association with seven novel multiple sclerosis risk loci

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    Objective: A recent large-scale study in multiple sclerosis (MS) using the ImmunoChip platform reported on 11 loci that showed suggestive genetic association with MS. Additional data in sufficiently sized and independent data sets are needed to assess whether these loci represent genuine MS risk factors. Methods: The lead SNPs of all 11 loci were genotyped in 10 796 MS cases and 10 793 controls from Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands, Austria and Russia, that were independent from the previously reported cohorts. Association analyses were performed using logistic regression based on an additive model. Summary effect size estimates were calculated using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: Seven of the 11 tested SNPs showed significant association with MS susceptibility in the 21 589 individuals analysed here. Meta-analysis across our and previously published MS case-control data (total sample size n=101 683) revealed novel genome-wide significant association with MS susceptibility (p<5×10−8) for all seven variants. This included SNPs in or near LOC100506457 (rs1534422, p=4.03×10−12), CD28 (rs6435203, p=1.35×10−9), LPP (rs4686953, p=3.35×10−8), ETS1 (rs3809006, p=7.74×10−9), DLEU1 (rs806349, p=8.14×10−12), LPIN3 (rs6072343, p=7.16×10−12) and IFNGR2 (rs9808753, p=4.40×10−10). Cis expression quantitative locus effects were observed in silico for rs6435203 on CD28 and for rs9808753 on several immunologically relevant genes in the IFNGR2 locus. Conclusions: This study adds seven loci to the list of genuine MS genetic risk factors and further extends the list of established loci shared across autoimmune diseases

    Assessment of microRNA-related SNP effects in the 3′ untranslated region of the IL22RA2 risk locus in multiple sclerosis

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    Abstract Recent large-scale association studies have identified over 100 MS risk loci. One of these MS risk variants is single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs17066096, located 14 kb downstream of IL22RA2. IL22RA2 represents a compelling MS candidate gene due to the role of IL-22 in autoimmunity; however, rs17066096 does not map into any known functional element. We assessed whether rs17066096 or a nearby proxy SNP may exert pathogenic effects by affecting microRNA-to-mRNA binding and thus IL22RA2 expression using comprehensive in silico predictions, in vitro reporter assays, and genotyping experiments in 6,722 individuals. In silico screening identified two predicted microRNA binding sites in the 3′UTR of IL22RA2 (for hsa-miR-2278 and hsamiR-411-5p) encompassing a SNP (rs28366) in moderate linkage disequilibrium with rs17066096 (r 2 =0.4). The binding of both microRNAs to the IL22RA2 3′UTR was confirmed in vitro, but their binding affinities were not significantly affected by rs28366. Association analyses revealed significant Electronic supplementary material The online version of this articl

    Autoantibodies to MOG in a distinct subgroup of adult multiple sclerosis

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    Objectives: To evaluate the presence of antibodies to conformation-intact myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in a subgroup of adult patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis (MS) preselected for a specific clinical phenotype including severe spinal cord, optic nerve, and brainstem involvement. Methods: Antibodies to MOG were investigated using a cell-based assay in 3 groups of patients: 104 preselected patients with MS (group 1), 55 age-and sex-matched, otherwise unselected patients with MS (group 2), and in 22 brain-biopsied patients with demyelinating diseases of the CNS (n = 19 with MS), 4 of whom classified as MS type II (group 3). Recognized epitopes were identified with mutated variants of MOG. Results: Antibodies to MOG were found in about 5%(5/104) of preselected adult patients with MS. In contrast, in groups 2 and 3, none of the patients tested positive for MOG antibodies. Patients with MS with antibodies to MOG predominantly manifested with concomitant severe brainstem and spinal cord involvement and had a severe disease course with high relapse rates and failure to several disease-modifying therapies. Three of them had been treated with plasma exchange with a favorable response. All anti-MOG-positive patients with MS showed typical MS lesions on brain MRI. Longitudinal analysis up to 9 years revealed fluctuations and reappearance of anti-MOG reactivity. Epitope mapping indicated interindividual heterogeneity, yet intraindividual stability of the antibody response. Conclusions: Antibodies to MOG can be found in a distinct subgroup of adult MS with a specific clinical phenotype and may indicate disease heterogeneity

    New-Onset Headache in Patients With Autoimmune Encephalitis Is Associated With anti-NMDA-Receptor Antibodies.

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    OBJECTIVE We tested the hypotheses (i) that autoimmune encephalitis is associated with new-onset headache, and (ii) that the occurrence of headache is associated with the presence of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor antibodies. BACKGROUND Autoimmune encephalitis presents with cognitive dysfunction as well as neuro-psychiatric symptoms. Its pathophysiology might involve antibody-mediated dysfunction of the glutamatergic system as indicated by the presence of anti-NMDA-receptor antibodies in some patients. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, patients with autoimmune encephalitis were assessed with a standardized interview for previous headache and headache associated with autoimmune encephalitis. Headache was classified according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition. Clinical and paraclinical findings were correlated with the occurrence of headache. RESULTS Of 40 patients with autoimmune encephalitis, 19 did not have a history of headache. Of those, nine suffered from encephalitis-associated headache. Seven of these nine had anti-NMDA-receptor antibodies in contrast to only two among the remaining 10 patients without new-onset headache (P = .023, odds ratio: 14, 95% confidence interval: 1.5; 127). In most patients headache occurred in attacks on more than 15 days/month, was severe, and of short duration (less than 4 hours). International Headache Society criteria for migraine were met in three patients. CONCLUSIONS New-onset headache is a relevant symptom in patients with autoimmune encephalitis who have no history of previous headache, especially in the subgroup with anti-NMDA-receptor antibodies. This indicates a thorough investigation for secondary headaches including anti-NMDA-R antibodies for patients with new-onset headache and neuropsychiatric findings. Glutamatergic dysfunction might be important for the generation of head pain but may only occasionally be sufficient to trigger migraine-like attacks in nonmigraineurs
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