663 research outputs found

    The Potential Impact of Plain Packaging of Cigarette Products Among Brazilian Young Women: An Experimental Study

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    Background: Tobacco use is responsible for 5.4 million deaths every year worldwide and is a leading cause of preventable death. The burden of these deaths is rapidly shifting to low and middle-income countries, such as Brazil. Brazil has prohibited most forms of tobacco advertising; however, the cigarette pack remains a primary source of marketing. The current study examined how tobacco packaging influences brand appeal and perceptions of health risk among young women in Brazil. Methods: A between-subjects experiment was conducted in which 640 Brazilian women aged 16–26 participated in an online survey. Participants were randomized to view 10 cigarette packages according to one of three experimental conditions: standard branded packages, the same packs without brand imagery (“plain packaging”), or the same packs without brand imagery or descriptors (e.g., flavors). Participants rated packages on perceived appeal, taste, health risk, smoothness, and smoker attributes. Finally, participants were shown a range of branded and plain packs from which they could select one as a free gift, which constituted a behavioral measure of appeal. Results: Branded packs were rated as significantly more appealing, better tasting, and smoother on the throat than plain packs. Branded packs were also associated with a greater number of positive smoker attributes including style and sophistication, and were perceived as more likely to be smoked by females than the plain packs. Removing descriptors from the plain packs further decreased the ratings of appeal, taste and smoothness, and also reduced associations with positive attributes. In the pack offer, participants were three times more likely to select branded packs than plain packs. Conclusions: Plain packaging and removal of descriptors may reduce the appeal of smoking for youth and young adults, and consequently reduce smoking susceptibility. Overall, the findings provide support for plain packaging regulations, such as those in Australia

    Toxic metal concentrations in cigarettes obtained from U.S. smokers in 2009 : results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States survey cohort

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    This research was funded by grants from the U.S. National Cancer Institute (R01 CA100362 and P01 CA138389), and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (115016). Geoffrey T. Fong was supported by a Senior Investigator Award from the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research (OICR) and a Prevention Scientist Award from the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute.Smoking-related diseases can be attributed to the inhalation of many different toxins, including heavy metals, which have a host of detrimental health effects. The current study reports the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) in cigarettes obtained from adult smokers participating in the 2009 wave of the ITC United States Survey (N = 320). The mean As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb levels were 0.17, 0.86, 2.35, 2.21, and 0.44 mu g/g, respectively. There were some differences in metal concentrations of cigarette brands produced by different manufacturers, suggesting differences in the source of tobaccos used by different companies. For Ni, there were significant pairwise differences between Philip Morris U.S. (PMUSA) and R.J. Reynolds (RJR) brands (PMUSA higher; p 0.10). Because of the variety of toxic heavy metals in cigarette tobacco, and their numerous negative health effects, metal content in cigarette tobacco should be reduced.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Face Mask Exemptions, Respiratory Patients, and COVID-19 in Spain. Data From the 2021 ITC EUREST-PLUS Spain Survey

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    Dear Editor, During the initial waves of the COVID-19 pandemic, respiratory patients received confusing messages by several patient associations and the World Health Organization1, 2 to be exempted from wearing face masks. Allegedly, many assumed that difficult breathing through face masks might exacerbate their respiratory condition, producing asthma attacks or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. In its December 2020 Interim Guidance on Mask use in the context of COVID-19, WHO cited studies suggesting that masks might have an adverse impact on respiratory disease patients, but they did not provide any guidance about whether respiratory disease patients should or should not wear masks; explicitly, it reads in page 10 of 22 the following paragraph and references

    The effects of statistical training on thinking about everyday problems

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    People possess an abstract inferential rule system that is an intuitive version of the law of large numbers. Because the rule system is not tied to any particular content domain, it is possible to improve it by formal teaching techniques. We present four experiments that support this view. In Experiments 1 and 2, we taught subjects about the formal properties of the law of large numbers in brief training sessions in the laboratory and found that this increased both the frequency and the quality of statistical reasoning for a wide variety of problems of an everyday nature. In addition, we taught subjects about the rule by a "guided induction" technique, showing them how to use the rule to solve problems in particular domains. Learning from the examples was abstracted to such an extent that subjects showed just as much improvement on domains where the rule was not taught as on domains where it was. In Experiment 3, the ability to analyze an everyday problem with reference to the law of large numbers was shown to be much greater for those who had several years of training in statistics than for those who had less. Experiment 4 demonstrated that the beneficial effects of formal training in statistics may hold even when subjects are tested completely outside of the context of training. In general, these four experiments support a rather "formalist" theory of reasoning: people reason using very abstract rules, and their reasoning about a wide variety of content domains can be affected by direct manipulation of these abstract rules.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/26118/1/0000194.pd

    Methods of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey

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    This paper describes the design features, data collection methods and analytical strategies of the ITC China Survey, a prospective cohort study of 800 adult smokers and 200 adult non-smokers in each of six cities in China . In addition to features and methods which are common to ITC surveys in other countries, the ITC China Survey possesses unique features in frame construction, a large first phase data enumeration and sampling selection; and it uses special techniques and measures in training, field work organisation and quality control. It also faces technical challenges in sample selection and weight calculation when some selected upper level clusters need to be replaced by new ones owing to massive relocation exercises within the cities

    Evaluating the Outcomes of the Menthol Cigarette Ban in England by Comparing Menthol Cigarette Smoking Among Youth in England, Canada, and the US, 2018-2020

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    Importance: Menthol cigarettes were prohibited in England in May 2020 and nationally in Canada in October 2017 but remain permitted in the US. Evidence on the outcomes of menthol cigarette bans among youth outside of Canada, and the characteristics of youth smokers, is lacking. Objectives: To evaluate the outcomes of menthol cigarette bans on youth menthol cigarette smoking and to characterize youth menthol cigarette smokers in terms of demographics and cigarette consumption and dependence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study uses data from online repeat cross-sectional International Tobacco Control Youth Tobacco and Vaping Surveys conducted in 2018, 2019, February 2020, and August 2020. Participants included past 30-day smokers aged 16 to 19 years. Data analysis was performed from March 2021 to January 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: Usually smoke a brand of cigarettes that was menthol, including capsule. Exposures: Menthol cigarette ban, comparing 3 countries over time: Canada, where a ban already existed, England, where a ban was implemented during the study, and the US, where no national ban was present. Age, sex, race, and consumption and dependence were also examined by menthol smoking in each country, and in England before vs after the ban. Results: The analytical sample comprised 7067 participants aged 16 to 19 years, of whom 4129 were female and 5019 were White. In England, the weighted percentage of youth smokers who reported smoking a menthol or capsule cigarette brand was stable in the 3 survey waves before the menthol ban (2018 to February 2020, 9.4% vs 12.1%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.03; 95% CI, 0.99-1.06; P = .15) but decreased to 3.0% after the ban (February 2020 vs August 2020, AOR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.10; P 5 vs 1, AOR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.18; P = .007), or had urges to smoke every or most days (AOR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.14; P = .006); and among smokers in Canada who perceived themselves as addicted to cigarettes (AOR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.03; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study, the proportion of youth smokers who smoke menthol (including capsule) cigarettes decreased substantially after the menthol ban in England. This association was consistent across all demographic groups. Perceived addiction among menthol smokers was also lower where menthol cigarettes were banned

    The influence of newspaper coverage and a media campaign on smokers' support for smoke-free bars and restaurants and on secondhand smoke harm awareness: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

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    OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of newspaper coverage and a media campaign about Dutch smoke-free legislation on smokers’ support for smoke-free bars and restaurants and on second-hand smoke (SHS) harm awareness. DESIGN AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A content analysis was conducted of 1,041 newspaper articles on the smoke-free legislation published in six Dutch newspapers from March 2008 until April 2009. Smokers who were regular readers of at least one of these newspapers (n = 677) were selected from the pre- and post-ban waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. Exposure to newspaper coverage and to the implementation campaign were correlated with changes in smokers’ support for smoke-free bars and restaurants and SHS harm awareness. RESULTS: Most newspaper coverage was found to be negative towards the smoking ban (57%) and focused on economic aspects (59%) rather than health aspects (22%). Exposure to this coverage had a small but significantly negative effect on support for smoke-free bars and restaurants (Beta = −0.09, p = 0.013). Among higher educated smokers, exposure to positive newspaper coverage had a more positive effect on support for smoke-free bars and restaurants. In addition, exposure to the implementation campaign had a small but significantly positive effect on SHS harm awareness (Beta = 0.11, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Media attention about smoke-free legislation can influence smokers’ support for the legislation and SHS harm awareness. Tobacco control advocates should aim to establish positive media attention that puts forward the health arguments for the legislation
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