122 research outputs found

    Predicting Adolescent Depression: The Interrelated Roles of Self-Esteem and Interpersonal Stressors

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    Depression in adolescents can lead to social and educational impairment and is a major risk factor for suicide and substance misuse. Thus, predicting and preventing this disorder are extremely important. The current study aimed to analyze the contribution of adolescents’ self-esteem (i.e., quality of interpersonal relationships, control of life events, and management of negative emotions) and interpersonal stressor sources (relationships with parents, teachers, classmates and friends) in predicting several depression manifestations (i.e., depressed mood, sense of inadequacy, and insecurity). Participants were 182 Italian pre-adolescents and adolescents, aged 10–14 years, were recruited from three Italian schools. They were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire. Results showed that self-esteem was a major factor to be considered in adolescents’ depression. In particular, adolescents’ perception of negative emotion management was the most important protective factor against depression manifestations. Conversely, sources of interpersonal stressors contributed only marginally to depression. Among these, problems with parents and friends increased adolescents’ depressed mood, while troubles with classmates impacted on their sense of inadequacy and insecurity. Implications of these results for positive practices which could enhance adolescents’ self-esteem and further expansions of the study are discussed

    Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of In Vivo and In Vitro SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Lesson from Human Sperm

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    Despite the major target of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, being the respiratory system, clinical evidence suggests that the male reproductive system may represent another viral target organ. Revealing the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on testis and sperm is a priority for reproductive biology, as well as for reproductive medicine. Here, we confirmed that the SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is highly expressed on human testis and ejaculated sperm; moreover, we provide evidence for the expression of the co-receptors transmembrane protease/serine (TMPRSS2), Basigin (BSG), and Catepsin L (CTSL). Human sperm were readily infected, both in vivo and in vitro, by SARS-CoV-2, as demonstrated by confocal and electron microscopy. The demonstration that the seminiferous epithelium and sperm support SARS-CoV-2 viral replication suggests the possibility that the spermatogenetic process may be detrimentally affected by the virus, and at the same time, supports the need to implement safety measures and guidelines to ensure specific care in reproductive medicine

    Significant low prevalence of antibodies reacting with simian virus 40 mimotopes in serum samples from patients affected by inflammatory neurologic diseases, including multiple sclerosis

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    Many investigations were carried out on the association between viruses and multiple sclerosis (MS). Indeed, early studies reported the detections of neurotropic virus footprints in the CNS of patients with MS. In this study, sera from patients affected by MS, other inflammatory (OIND) and non-inflammatory neurologic diseases (NIND) were analyzed for antibodies against the polyomavirus, Simian Virus 40 (SV40). An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with two synthetic peptides, which mimic SV40 antigens, was employed to detect specific antibodies in sera from patients affected by MS, OIND, NIND and healthy subjects (HS). Immunologic data indicate that in sera from MS patients antibodies against SV40 mimotopes are detectable with a low prevalence, 6%, whereas in HS of the same mean age, 40 yrs, the prevalence was 22%. The difference is statistically significant (P = 0.001). Significant is also the difference between MS vs. NIND patients (6% vs. 17%; P = 0.0254), whereas no significant difference was detected between MS vs OIND (6% vs 10%; P>0.05). The prevalence of SV40 antibodies in MS patients is 70% lower than that revealed in HS

    Bifidobacterium affects antitumor efficacy of oncolytic adenovirus in a mouse model of melanoma

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    Gut microbiota plays a key role in modulating responses to cancer immunotherapy in melanoma patients. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) represent emerging tools in cancer therapy, inducing a potent immunogenic cancer cell death (ICD) and recruiting immune cells in tumors, poorly infiltrated by T cells. We investigated whether the antitumoral activity of oncolytic adenovirus Ad5D24-CpG (Ad-CpG) was gut microbiota-mediated in a syngeneic mouse model of melanoma and observed that ICD was weakened by vancomycin-mediated perturbation of gut microbiota. Ad-CpG efficacy was increased by oral supplementation with Bifidobacterium, reducing melanoma progression and tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells. Fecal microbiota was enriched in bacterial species belonging to the Firmicutes phylum in mice treated with both Bifidobacterium and Ad-CpG; furthermore, our data suggest that molecular mimicry between melanoma and Bifidobacterium-derived epitopes may favor activation of cross-reactive T cells and constitutes one of the mechanisms by which gut microbiota modulates OVs response

    Redox imbalance and morphological changes in skin fibroblasts in typical Rett syndrome.

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    Evidence of oxidative stress has been reported in the blood of patients with Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder mainly caused by mutations in the gene encoding the Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2. Little is known regarding the redox status in RTT cellular systems and its relationship with the morphological phenotype. In RTT patients (n = 16) we investigated four different oxidative stress markers, F2-Isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs), F4-Neuroprostanes (F4-NeuroPs), nonprotein bound iron (NPBI), and (4-HNE PAs), and glutathione in one of the most accessible cells, that is, skin fibroblasts, and searched for possible changes in cellular/intracellular structure and qualitative modifications of synthesized collagen. Significantly increased F4-NeuroPs (12-folds), F2-IsoPs (7.5-folds) NPBI (2.3-folds), 4-HNE PAs (1.48-folds), and GSSG (1.44-folds) were detected, with significantly decreased GSH (−43.6%) and GSH/GSSG ratio (−3.05 folds). A marked dilation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, associated with several cytoplasmic multilamellar bodies, was detectable in RTT fibroblasts. Colocalization of collagen I and collagen III, as well as the percentage of type I collagen as derived by semiquantitative immunofluorescence staining analyses, appears to be significantly reduced in RTT cells. Our findings indicate the presence of a redox imbalance and previously unrecognized morphological skin fibroblast abnormalities in RTT patients

    Predicting needlestick and sharps injuries in nursing students: Development of the SNNIP scale

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    © 2020 The Authors. Nursing Open published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Aim: To develop an instrument to investigate knowledge and predictive factors of needlestick and sharps injuries (NSIs) in nursing students during clinical placements. Design: Instrument development and cross-sectional study for psychometric testing. Methods: A self-administered instrument including demographic data, injury epidemiology and predictive factors of NSIs was developed between October 2018–January 2019. Content validity was assessed by a panel of experts. The instrument's factor structure and discriminant validity were explored using principal components analysis. The STROBE guidelines were followed. Results: Evidence of content validity was found (S-CVI 0.75; I-CVI 0.50–1.00). A three-factor structure was shown by exploratory factor analysis. Of the 238 participants, 39% had been injured at least once, of which 67.3% in the second year. Higher perceptions of “personal exposure” (4.06, SD 3.78) were reported by third-year students. Higher scores for “perceived benefits” of preventive behaviours (13.6, SD 1.46) were reported by second-year students