151 research outputs found

    Endometrioma of the Abdominal Wall after Caesarean Section

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    Background:Endometrial cell implantation after abdominal surgery, mainly after caesarean section, may result in formation of endometrioma, which is usually described to be of various sizes, and adjacent to the surgical scar. Case:A 36-year old woman complaining of a mass of the abdominal wall with pain during the menstrual period, with a caesarean section 5 years earlier, presented a rounded tumour not contiguous to the Pfannenstiel’s laparotomy scar, of hard consistence, fixed and adherent to the deep abdominal wall structures, located on the left paramedian epigastric region. Magnetic Resonance imaging showed the nodule, involving the deep layers of the abdominal wall and the distance from the laparotomic scar. Surgical removal was performed with wide excision of the lesion, causing a large wall defect. After histological con-firmation (endometriosis) by frozen section, reconstruction of the abdominal wall required prolene mesh grafting. After twelve months the patient is healthy. Conclusion: When abdominal wall endometrioma is located distant from the scar, perhaps more frequently after Pfannenstiel’s laparotomic inci-sion, the differential diagnosis may be more difficult and MRI can help diffe-rentiating many of these lesions, and histological confirmation should be ob-tained intraoperatively, by frozen section, to allow an oncological resection if required

    Dedifferentiated Melanoma: A Diagnostic Histological Pitfall! Review of the Literature with Case Presentation

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    Dedifferentiated melanoma is a particular form of malignant melanoma with a progressive worsening of the patient's clinical outcome. It is well known that melanoma can assume different histo-morphological patterns, to which specific genetic signatures correspond, sometimes but not always. In this review we address the diagnostic difficulties in correctly recognizing this entity, discuss the major differential diagnoses of interest to the dermatopathologist, and conduct a review of the literature with particular attention and emphasis on the latest molecular discoveries regarding the dedifferentiation/undifferentiation mechanism and more advanced therapeutic approaches

    Cervical cancer benefits from trabectedin combination with the β-blocker propranolol: in vitro and ex vivo evaluations in patient-derived organoids

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    Background: Cervical cancer (CC) is characterized by genomic alterations in DNA repair genes, which could favor treatment with agents causing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), such as trabectedin. Hence, we evaluated the capability of trabectedin to inhibit CC viability and used ovarian cancer (OC) models as a reference. Since chronic stress may promote gynecological cancer and may hinder the efficacy of therapy, we investigated the potential of targeting β-adrenergic receptors with propranolol to enhance trabectedin efficacy and change tumor immunogenicity.Methods: OC cell lines, Caov-3 and SK-OV-3, CC cell lines, HeLa and OV2008, and patient-derived organoids were used as study models. MTT and 3D cell viability assays were used for drug(s) IC50 determination. The analysis of apoptosis, JC-1 mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cell cycle, and protein expression was performed by flow cytometry. Cell target modulation analyses were carried out by gene expression, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and immunocytochemistry.Results: Trabectedin reduced the proliferation of both CC and OC cell lines and notably of CC patient-derived organoids. Mechanistically, trabectedin caused DNA DSBs and S-phase cell cycle arrest. Despite DNA DSBs, cells failed the formation of nuclear RAD51 foci and underwent apoptosis. Under norepinephrine stimulation, propranolol enhanced trabectedin efficacy, further inducing apoptosis through the involvement of mitochondria, Erk1/2 activation, and the increase of inducible COX-2. Notably, trabectedin and propranolol affected the expression of PD1 in both CC and OC cell lines.Conclusion: Overall, our results show that CC is responsive to trabectedin and provide translational evidence that could benefit CC treatment options. Our study pointed out that combined treatment offset trabectedin resistance caused by β-adrenergic receptor activation in both ovarian and cervical cancer models

    Radiomics in prostate cancer: an up-to-date review

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    : Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common worldwide diagnosed malignancy in male population. The diagnosis, the identification of aggressive disease, and the post-treatment follow-up needs a more comprehensive and holistic approach. Radiomics is the extraction and interpretation of images phenotypes in a quantitative manner. Radiomics may give an advantage through advancements in imaging modalities and through the potential power of artificial intelligence techniques by translating those features into clinical outcome prediction. This article gives an overview on the current evidence of methodology and reviews the available literature on radiomics in PCa patients, highlighting its potential for personalized treatment and future applications

    Clinical characteristics and molecular aspects of low-grade serous ovarian and peritoneal cancer: a multicenter, observational, retrospective analysis of MITO Group (MITO 22)

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    BACKGROUND: Low-grade serous ovarian and peritoneal cancer (LGSC) is a rare disease and few data on the clinical and genomic landscape have been published.METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with LGSC between 1996 and 2019 was conducted in MITO centers. Objective Response Rate (ORR) to treatments, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed. Additionally, the tumor molecular profile of 56 patients was evaluated using the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) FoundationOne CDX (Foundation Medicine (R)).RESULTS: A total of 128 patients with complete clinical data and pathologically confirmed diagnosis of LGSC were identified. ORR to first and subsequent therapies were 23.7% and 33.7%, respectively. PFS was 43.9 months (95% CI:32.4-53.1) and OS was 105.4 months (95% CI: 82.7-not reached). The most common gene alterations were: KRAS (n = 12, 21%), CDKN2A/B (n = 11, 20%), NRAS (n = 8, 14%), FANCA (n = 8, 14%), NF1 (n = 7, 13%) and BRAF (n = 6, 11%). Unexpectedly, pathogenetic BRCA1 (n = 2, 4%), BRCA2 (n = 1, 2%) and PALB2 (n = 1, 2%) mutations were found.CONCLUSIONS: MITO 22 suggests that LGSC is an heterogenous disease for both its clinical behavior in response to standard therapies and its molecular alterations. Future prospective studies should test treatments according to biological and molecular tumor's characteristics
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