673 research outputs found

    Intensity of respiratory cortical arousals is a distinct pathophysiologic feature and is associated with disease severity in obstructive sleep apnea patients

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    Background: We investigated whether the number, duration and intensity of respiratory arousals (RA) on C3-electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings correlate with polysomnography (PSG)-related disease severity in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. We also investigated if every patient might have an individual RA microstructure pattern, independent from OSA-severity. Methods: PSG recordings of 20 OSA patients (9 female; age 27–80 years) were analyzed retrospectively. Correlation coefficients were calculated between RA microstructure (duration, EEG-intensity) and RA number and respiratory disturbance index (RDI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI) and arousal index (AI). Intraclass correlations (ICC) for both RA duration and intensity were calculated. Sleep stage-specific and apnea- and hypopnea-specific analyses were also done. The probability distributions of duration and intensity were plotted, interpolated with a kernel which fits the distribution. A Bayesian posterior distribution analysis and pair-wise comparisons of each patient with all other 19 patients were performed. Results: Of the analyzed 2600 RA, strong positive correlations were found between average RA intensity and both RDI and AI. The number of PSG-recorded RA was strongly positively correlated with RDI. Significant correlations between average RA intensity in REM, NREM2 and NREM3 sleep stages and total ODI were identified. No sleep stage-specific correlations of arousal microstructure with age, sex, RDI or AI were identified. Although between-subjects ICC values were 0.7 (all p < 0.05). While apnea-related RA duration did not differ from hypopnea-related RA duration, RA intensity was significantly higher (p = 0.00135) in hypopneas than in apneas. A clear individual pattern of arousal duration for each patient was made distinct. For arousal intensity, a Gaussian distribution was identified in most patients. The Bayesian statistics regarding the arousal microstructure showed significant differences between each pair of patients. Conclusions: Each individual patient with OSA might have an individual pattern of RA intensity and duration indicating a distinct individual pathophysiological feature. Arousal intensity was significantly higher in hypopneic than in apneic events and may be related causally to the diminished (compared to apneas) respiratory distress associated with hypopneas. RA intensity in REM, NREM2 and NREM3 strongly correlated with ODI

    BMI, Alcohol Consumption and Gut Microbiome Species Richness Are Related to Structural and Functional Neurological Abnormalities

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    The incidence of neurological diseases is increasing throughout the world. The aim of the present study was to identify nutrition and microbiome factors related to structural and functional neurological abnormalities to optimize future preventive strategies. Methods: Two hundred thirty-eight patients suffering from (1) structural (neurodegeneration) or (2) functional (epilepsy) neurological abnormalities or (3) chronic pain (migraine) and 612 healthy control subjects were analyzed by validated 12-month food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 16S rRNA micro- biome sequencing (from stool samples). A binomial logistic regression model was applied for risk calculation and functional pathway analysis to show which functional pathway could discriminate cases and healthy controls. Results: Detailed analysis of more than 60 macro- and micronutrients revealed no distinct significant difference between cases and controls, whereas BMI, insulin resistance and metabolic inflammation in addition to alcohol consumption were major drivers of an overall neurological disease risk. The gut microbiome analysis showed decreased alpha diversity (Shannon index: p = 9.1× 10 −7 ) and species richness (p = 1.2 × 10 −8 ) in the case group as well as signifi- cant differences in beta diversity between cases and controls (Bray–Curtis: p = 9.99 × 10 −4 ; Jaccard: p = 9.99 × 10 −4 ). The Shannon index showed a beneficial effect (OR = 0.59 (95%-CI (0.40, 0.87); p = 8 × 10 −3 ). Cases were clearly discriminated from healthy controls by environmental information processing, signal transduction, two component system and membrane transport as significantly different functional pathways. Conclusions: In conclusion, our data indicate that an overall healthy lifestyle, in contrast to supplementation of single micro- or macronutrients, is most likely to reduce overall neurological abnormality risk and that the gut microbiome is an interesting target to develop novel preventive strategies

    Evaluation of Clinical Risk Factors to Predict High On-Treatment Platelet Reactivity and Outcome in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease (PREDICT-STABLE)

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    Objectives This study was designed to identify the multivariate effect of clinical risk factors on high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) and 12 months major adverse events (MACE) under treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel in patients undergoing non-urgent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods 739 consecutive patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing PCI were recruited. On-treatment platelet aggregation was tested by light transmittance aggregometry. Clinical risk factors and MACE during one-year follow-up were recorded. An independent population of 591 patients served as validation cohort. Results Degree of on-treatment platelet aggregation was influenced by different clinical risk factors. In multivariate regression analysis older age, diabetes mellitus, elevated BMI, renal function and left ventricular ejection fraction were independent predictors of HPR. After weighing these variables according to their estimates in multivariate regression model, we developed a score to predict HPR in stable CAD patients undergoing elective PCI (PREDICT-STABLE Score, ranging 0-9). Patients with a high score were significantly more likely to develop MACE within one year of follow-up, 3.4% (score 0-3), 6.3% (score 4-6) and 10.3% (score 7-9); odds ratio 3.23, P=0.02 for score 7-9 vs. 0-3. This association was confirmed in the validation cohort. Conclusions Variability of on-treatment platelet function and associated outcome is mainly influenced by clinical risk variables. Identification of high risk patients (e.g. with high PREDICT-STABLE score) might help to identify risk groups that benefit from more intensified antiplatelet regimen. Additional clinical risk factor assessment rather than isolated platelet function-guided approaches should be investigated in future to evaluate personalized antiplatelet therapy in stable CAD-patients

    Brief Research Report: Serum clara cell 16 kDa protein levels are increased in patients hospitalized for severe SARS-CoV-2 or sepsis infection

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    Background Clara cell 16 kDa protein (CC16) is a secretory protein primarily expressed in epithelial cells in the lungs. Previous studies show that CC16 exerts anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory properties in both acute and chronic pulmonary diseases. However, despite the evidence of CC16's high biomarker potential, evaluation of its role in infectious diseases is yet very limited. Methods Serum CC16 concentrations were measured by ELISA and assessed in two different types of severe infections. Using a case-control study design, patients treated for either severe SARS-CoV-2 or severe non-pulmonary sepsis infection were compared to age- and sex-matched healthy human subjects. Results Serum CC16 was significantly increased in both types of infection (SARS-CoV-2: 96.22 ± 129.01 ng/ml vs. healthy controls: 14.05 ± 7.48 ng/ml, p = 0.022; sepsis: 35.37 ± 28.10 ng/ml vs. healthy controls: 15.25 ± 7.51 ng/ml, p = 0.032) but there were no distinct differences between infections with and without pulmonary focus (p = 0.089). Furthermore, CC16 serum levels were positively correlated to disease duration and inversely to the platelet count in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusions Increased CC16 serum levels in both SARS-CoV-2 and sepsis reinforce the high potential as a biomarker for epithelial cell damage and bronchoalveolar-blood barrier leakage in pulmonary as well as non-pulmonary infectious diseases

    GPla Polymorphisms Are Associated with Outcomes in Patients at High Cardiovascular Risk

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    BackgroundPlatelet membrane glycoprotein receptors mediate thrombus formation. GP Ia/IIa is an essential platelet integrin receptor. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the GP Ia/IIa gene alter GP Ia/IIa expression; however, their influence on cardiovascular disease remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the GP Ia/IIa SNPs rs1126643 and rs1062535 on clinical outcomes in a large collective including high-risk patients with cardiovascular disease.Methods and resultsGP Ia SNP analysis was performed in 943 patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease. All patients were tracked for all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke for 360 days. Homozygous carriers of the minor allele showed significantly worse event-free survival when compared with major allele carriers in the complete collective as well as in the subset of high-risk patients (carrying all of the following three risk factors: diabetes type II, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia). There was no significant difference in the subset of low-risk patients (carrying none of the three risk factors).ConclusionsGPla SNPs are associated with cardiovascular prognosis especially in high-risk patients. Identification of GPIa SNPs is of importance to tailor therapies in patients at already high cardiovascular risk

    Precision Nutrition in Chronic Inflammation

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    The molecular foundation of chronic in fl ammatory diseases (CIDs) can differ markedly between individuals. As our understanding of the biochemical mechanisms underlying individual disease manifestations and progressions expands, new strategies to adjust treatments to the patient ’ s characteristics will continue to profoundly transform clinical practice. Nutrition has long been recognized as an important determinant of in fl ammatory disease phenotypes and treatment response. Yet empirical work demonstrating the therapeutic effectiveness of patient-tailored nutrition remains scarce. This is mainly due to the challenges presented by long-term effects of nutrition, variations in inter-individual gastrointestinal microbiota, the multiplicity of human metabolic pathways potentially affected by food ingredients, nutrition behavior, and the complexity of food composition. Historically, these challenges have been addressed in both human studies and experimental model laboratory studies primarily by using individual nutrition data collection in tandem with large- scale biomolecular data acquisition (e.g. genomics, metabolomics, etc.). This review highlights recent fi ndings in the fi eld of precision nutrition and their potential implications for the development of personalized treatment strategies for CIDs. It emphasizes the importance of computational approaches to integrate nutritional information into multi- omics data analysis and to predict which molecular mechanisms may explain how nutrients intersect with disease pathways. We conclude that recent fi ndings point towards the unexhausted potential of nutrition as part of personalized medicine in chronic in fl ammation

    TWISTED DWARF1 mediates the action of auxin transport inhibitors on actin cytoskeleton dynamics

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    Plant growth and architecture is regulated by the polar distribution of the hormone auxin. Polarity and flexibility of this process is provided by constant cycling of auxin transporter vesicles along actin filaments, coordinated by a positive auxin-actin feedback loop. Both polar auxin transport and vesicle cycling are inhibited by synthetic auxin transport inhibitors, such as 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), counteracting the effect of auxin; however, underlying targets and mechanisms are unclear. Using NMR, we map the NPA binding surface on the Arabidopsis thaliana ABCB chaperone TWISTED DWARF1 (TWD1). We identify ACTIN7 as a relevant, although likely indirect, TWD1 interactor, and show TWD1-dependent regulation of actin filament organization and dynamics and that TWD1 is required for NPA-mediated actin cytoskeleton remodeling. The TWD1-ACTIN7 axis controls plasma membrane presence of efflux transporters, and as a consequence act7 and twd1 share developmental and physiological phenotypes indicative of defects in auxin transport. These can be phenocopied by NPA treatment or by chemical actin (de)stabilization. We provide evidence that TWD1 determines downstream locations of auxin efflux transporters by adjusting actin filament debundling and dynamizing processes and mediating NPA action on the latter. This function appears to be evolutionary conserved since TWD1 expression in budding yeast alters actin polarization and cell polarity and provides NPA sensitivity

    Health economic assessment of ferric carboxymaltose in patients with iron deficiency and chronic heart failure based on the FAIR-HF trial: an analysis for the UK

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    AIMS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of iron repletion using intravenous (i.v.) ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with iron deficiency with or without anaemia. Cost-effectiveness was studied from the perspective of the National Health Service in the UK. METHODS AND RESULTS: A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis was used to compare iron repletion with FCM with no iron treatment. Using data from the FAIR-HF trial and publicly available sources and publications, per patient costs and clinical effectiveness of FCM were estimated compared with placebo. Cost assessment was based on study drug and administration costs, cost of CHF treatment, and hospital length of stay. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of FCM use was expressed as cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained, and sensitivity analyses were performed on the base case. The time horizon of the analysis was 24 weeks. Mean QALYs were higher in the FCM arm (difference 0.037 QALYs; bootstrap-based 95% confidence interval 0.017-0.060). The ICER of FCM compared with placebo was €4414 per QALY gained for the FAIR-HF dosing regimen. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the base case result to be robust. CONCLUSION: From the UK payers' perspective, managing iron deficiency in CHF patients using i.v. FCM was cost-effective in this analysis. The base case ICER was clearly below the threshold of €22 200-€33 300/QALY gained (£20 000-£30 000) typically used by the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence and proved to be robust in sensitivity analysis. Improved symptoms and better quality of life contributed to this result
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