5,175 research outputs found

    Counter Rotating Open Rotor Animation using Particle Image Velocimetry

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    This article describes the two accompanying fluid dynamics videos for the "Counter rotating open rotor flow field investigation using stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry" presented at the 64th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics in Baltimore, Maryland, November 20-22, 2011.Comment: Videos are include

    Influence of firing mechanisms on gain modulation

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    We studied the impact of a dynamical threshold on the f-I curve-the relationship between the input and the firing rate of a neuron-in the presence of background synaptic inputs. First, we found that, while the leaky integrate-and-fire model cannot reproduce the f-I curve of a cortical neuron, the leaky integrate-and-fire model with dynamical threshold can reproduce it very well. Second, we found that the dynamical threshold modulates the onset and the asymptotic behavior of the f-I curve. These results suggest that a cortical neuron has an adaptation mechanism and that the dynamical threshold has some significance for the computational properties of a neuron.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures, conference proceeding

    Detailed abundances in stars belonging to ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies

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    We report preliminary results concerning the detailed chemical composition of metal poor stars belonging to close ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (hereafter UfDSphs). The abundances have been determined thanks to spectra obtained with X-Shooter, a high efficiency spectrograph installed on one of the ESO VLT units. The sample of ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal stars have abundance ratios slightly lower to what is measured in field halo star of the same metallicity.We did not find extreme abundances in our Hercules stars as the one found by Koch for his 2 Hercules stars. The synthesis of the neutron capture elements Ba and Sr seems to originate from the same nucleosynthetic process in operation during the early stages of the galactic evolution.Comment: 3 pages, 1 figure; OMEG11 conference (Tokyo, Nov 2011

    Tidal dwarfs in the M81 group: the second generation?

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    We derive quantitative star formation histories of the four suspected tidal dwarf galaxies in the M81 group, HolmbergIX, BK3N, Arp-loop (A0952+69), and Garland, using Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera2 images in F606W and F814W obtained as part of a Snapshot survey of dwarf galaxies in the Local Universe. We consider the spatial distribution and ages of resolved stellar populations in these dwarf irregular galaxies. We use synthetic color-magnitude diagrams to derive the ages of the major star formation episodes, star formation rates, and approximate metallicity ranges. All the galaxies show evidence of continuous star formation between about 20 and 200 Myr ago with star formation rates in the range 7.5*10^(-3)- 7.6*10^(-4) M(sun)/yr. The metallicity of the detected stars spans a wide range, and have lower than solar abundance. A possible scenario is that all four dwarf galaxies were formed from material in the metal-poor outer part of the giant spiral galaxy M81 after the tidal interaction between M81, M82, and NGC3077 about 200 Myr ago. While we do not directly detect pronounced old stellar populations, the photometric limits of our data are such that the presence of such a population is not entirely ruled out

    Digital modulation of the nickel valence state in a cuprate-nickelate heterostructure

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    Layer-by-layer oxide molecular beam epitaxy has been used to synthesize cuprate-nickelate multilayer structures of composition (La2_2CuO4_4)m_m/LaO/(LaNiO3_3)n_n. In a combined experimental and theoretical study, we show that these structures allow a clean separation of dopant and doped layers. Specifically, the LaO layer separating cuprate and nickelate blocks provides an additional charge that, according to density functional theory calculations, is predominantly accommodated in the interfacial nickelate layers. This is reflected in an elongation of bond distances and changes in valence state, as observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Moreover, the predicted charge disproportionation in the nickelate interface layers leads to a thickness-dependent metal-to-insulator transition for n=2n=2, as observed in electrical transport measurements. The results exemplify the perspectives of charge transfer in metal-oxide multilayers to induce doping without introducing chemical and structural disorder

    Transient Oscillation of Currents in Quantum Hall Effect of Bloch Electrons

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    We consider the quantum Hall effect of two-dimensional electrons with a periodic potential and study the time dependence of the Hall and longitudinal currents when the electric field is applied abruptly. We find that the currents oscillate in time with very large frequencies because of quantum fluctuation and the oscillations eventually vanish, for their amplitudes decay as 1/t.Comment: 16 pages and 8 figure
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