6,068 research outputs found

    A small satellite mission devoted to mid-low latitude earth observation

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    This paper aims at assessing the feasibility of a small mission devoted to observe the mid-low latitude regions. The satellite will be equipped with three optical sensors: a medium-high spatial resolution VIS-NIR multi-spectral sensor, allowing the surface monitoring and land-use and land-cover studies; a medium spatial-resolution 3-bands thermal (MIR-TIR) sensor allowing the surface temperature (LST, SST) estimate and hot-spots (fires, volcanic eruption, etc.) detection; a panchromatic VIS-NIR camera for night-time observation able to reveal artificial and natural lights. The selected orbit, called multi-sun-synchronous (MSS), represents an innovation with respect to the classical sun-synchronous orbit much suitable for observing tropical regions, allowing an enhanced revisit frequency. Further, such an orbit allows the observation of the same region of the Earth at different local-time. In this way, the diurnal cycle of surface temperatures can be reconstructed with a 2-hours local-time step. An analysis of the capability of the selected ground stations to acquire the data gathered by the remote sensing sensors has been carried out. Orbital perturbations have been taken into account and an estimate of the propellant required for ground track control has been performed in order to verify its compatibility with a small mission requirements


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    Supersymmetry searches is one of the main topics of the research program for the experiments at the LHC, ATLAS and CMS. Due to strong model-dependence of the SUSY phenomenology, a base search on very general signatures ( "inclusive searches" ) is preferred. In particular, studies on missing transverse energy plus multijet signature are performed, requiring a variable number of leptons in the events. If SUSY signal will be found, detailed studies on the model parameters are foreseen

    Finite size Berezinski-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition at grain boundaries in solid 4^4He and role of 3^3He impurities

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    We analyze the complex phenomenology of the Non-Classical Rotational Inertia (NCRI) observed at low temperature in solid 4^4He within the context of a two dimensional Berezinski-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in a premelted 4^4He film at the grain boundaries. We show that both the temperature and 3^3He doping dependence of the NCRI fraction (NCRIF) can be ascribed to finite size effects induced by the finite grain size. We give an estimate of the average size of the grains which we argue to be limited by the isotopic 3^3He impurities and we provide a simple power-law relation between the NCRIF and the 3^3He concentration.Comment: Final version, as appearing on prin

    OTFS vs. OFDM in the Presence of Sparsity: A Fair Comparison

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    Many recent works in the literature declare that Orthogonal Time-Frequency-Space (OTFS) modulation is a promising candidate technology for high mobility communication scenarios. However, a truly fair comparison with its direct concurrent and widely used Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) modulation has not yet been provided. In this paper, we present such a fair comparison between the two digital modulation formats in terms of achievable communication rate. In this context, we explicitly address the problem of channel estimation by considering, for each modulation, a pilot scheme and the associated channel estimation algorithm specifically adapted to sparse channels in the Doppler-delay domain, targeting the optimization of the pilot overhead to maximize the overall achievable rate. In our achievable rate analysis we consider also the presence of a guard interval or cyclic prefix. The results are supported by numerical simulations, for different time-frequency selective channels including multiple scattering components and under non-perfect channel state information resulting from the considered pilot schemes. This work does not claim to establish in a fully definitive way which is the best modulation format, since such choice depends on many other features which are outside the scope of this work (e.g., legacy, intellectual property, ease and know-how for implementation, and many other criteria). Nevertheless, we provide the foundations to properly compare multi-carrier communication systems in terms of their information theoretic achievable rate potential, within meaningful and sensible assumptions on the channel models and on the receiver complexity (both in terms of channel estimation and in terms of soft-output symbol detection)

    A Brief History of Insanity: The Gaudio Translation

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    Recent advances on the mechanisms regulating cholangiocyte proliferation and the significance of the neuroendocrine regulation of cholangiocyte pathophysiology

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    Cholangiocytes are epithelial cells lining the biliary epithelium. Cholangiocytes play several key roles in the modification of ductal bile and are also the target cells in chronic cholestatic liver diseases (i.e., cholangiopathies) such as PSC, PBC, polycystic liver disease (PCLD) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). During these pathologies, cholangiocytes (which in normal condition are in a quiescent state) begin to proliferate acquiring phenotypes of neuroendocrine cells, and start secreting different cytokines, growth factors, neuropeptides, and hormones to modulate cholangiocytes proliferation and interaction with the surrounding environment, trying to reestablish the balance between proliferation/loss of cholangiocytes for the maintenance of biliary homeostasis. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent findings on the mechanisms regulating cholangiocyte proliferation and the significance of the neuroendocrine regulation of cholangiocyte pathophysiology. To clarify the mechanisms of action of these factors we will provide new potential strategies for the management of chronic liver diseases

    Microcorrosion Casts in the Microcirculation of Skeletal Muscle

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    The authors review the contribution of microcorrosion cast studies towards clarifying the structure of skeletal muscle microcirculation. Former studies performed on naturally contracted muscles show the presence of a primary and a secondary arterial network and a capillary network. At the level of the capillary network pericyte imprints are present. Muscles characterized by different types of metabolism show different features of the capillary pattern. Other authors have affirmed that the extended muscle is characterized by long and straight capillaries, while the contracted one features clusters of vessels all around a muscle fiber. The authors have made the present observations in order to determine how the capillary pattern of muscles with different metabolism is modified by extension and shortening of the muscle belly. The capillary pattern observed appears very similar to that observed in former studies. The differences between the oxidative and the glycolytic muscle are evident in every condition of the muscle belly. These data confirm the theory that there is a permanent endogenous difference in microcirculation between oxidative and glycolytic muscle, determined by muscle fiber metabolism

    On the Effectiveness of OTFS for Joint Radar Parameter Estimation and Communication

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    We consider a joint radar parameter estimation and communication system using orthogonal time frequency space (OTFS) modulation. The scenario is motivated by vehicular applications where a vehicle (or the infrastructure) equipped with a mono-static radar wishes to communicate data to its target receiver, while estimating parameters of interest related to this receiver. Provided that the radar-equipped transmitter is ready to send data to its target receiver, this setting naturally assumes that the receiver has been already detected. In a point-to-point communication setting over multipath time-frequency selective channels, we study the joint radar and communication system from two perspectives, i.e., the radar parameter estimation at the transmitter as well as the data detection at the receiver. For the radar parameter estimation part, we derive an efficient approximated Maximum Likelihood algorithm and the corresponding Cramér-Rao lower bound for range and velocity estimation. Numerical examples demonstrate that multi-carrier digital formats such as OTFS can achieve as accurate radar estimation as state-of-the-art radar waveforms such as frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW). For the data detection part, we focus on separate detection and decoding and consider a soft-output detector that exploits efficiently the channel sparsity in the Doppler-delay domain. We quantify the detector performance in terms of its pragmatic capacity, i.e., the achievable rate of the channel induced by the signal constellation and the detector soft-output. Simulations show that the proposed scheme outperforms concurrent state-of-the-art solutions. Overall, our work shows that a suitable digitally modulated waveform enables to efficiently operate joint radar parameter estimation and communication by achieving full information rate of the modulation and near-optimal radar estimation performance. Furthermore, OTFS appears to be particularly suited to the scope

    A novel ultrafast-low-dose computed tomography protocol allows concomitant coronary artery evaluation and lung cancer screening

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    BACKGROUND:Cardiac computed tomography (CT) is often performed in patients who are at high risk for lung cancer in whom screening is currently recommended. We tested diagnostic ability and radiation exposure of a novel ultra-low-dose CT protocol that allows concomitant coronary artery evaluation and lung screening. METHODS: We studied 30 current or former heavy smoker subjects with suspected or known coronary artery disease who underwent CT assessment of both coronary arteries and thoracic area (Revolution CT, General Electric). A new ultrafast-low-dose single protocol was used for ECG-gated helical acquisition of the heart and the whole chest. A single IV iodine bolus (70-90 ml) was used. All patients with CT evidence of coronary stenosis underwent also invasive coronary angiography. RESULTS: All the coronary segments were assessable in 28/30 (93%) patients. Only 8 coronary segments were not assessable in 2 patients due to motion artefacts (assessability: 98%; 477/485 segments). In the assessable segments, 20/21 significant stenoses (> 70% reduction of vessel diameter) were correctly diagnosed. Pulmonary nodules were detected in 5 patients, thus requiring to schedule follow-up surveillance CT thorax. Effective dose was 1.3 ± 0.9 mSv (range: 0.8-3.2 mSv). Noteworthy, no contrast or radiation dose increment was required with the new protocol as compared to conventional coronary CT protocol. CONCLUSIONS:The novel ultrafast-low-dose CT protocol allows lung cancer screening at time of coronary artery evaluation. The new approach might enhance the cost-effectiveness of coronary CT in heavy smokers with suspected or known coronary artery disease

    Common features between neoplastic and preneoplastic lesions of the biliary tract and the pancreas

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    The bile duct system and pancreas show many similarities due to their anatomical proximity and common embryological origin. Consequently, preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the bile duct and pancreas share analogies in terms of molecular, histological and pathophysiological features. Intraepithelial neoplasms are reported in biliary tract, as biliary intraepithelial neoplasm (BilIN), and in pancreas, as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm (PanIN). Both can evolve to invasive carcinomas, respectively cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Intraductal papillary neoplasms arise in biliary tract and pancreas. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the biliary tract (IPNB) share common histologic and phenotypic features such as pancreatobiliary, gastric, intestinal and oncocytic types, and biological behavior with the pancreatic counterpart, the intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas (IPMN). All these neoplastic lesions exhibit similar immunohistochemical phenotypes, suggesting a common carcinogenic process. Indeed, CCA and PDAC display similar clinic-pathological features as growth pattern, poor response to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy and, as a consequence, an unfavorable prognosis. The objective of this review is to discuss similarities and differences between the neoplastic lesions of the pancreas and biliary tract with potential implications on a common origin from similar stem/progenitor cells
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