2,657 research outputs found

    Self-heating Effect in Silicon-Photomultipliers

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    The main effect of radiation damage in a Silicon-Photolumtiplier (SiPM) is a dramatic increase in the dark current. The power dissipated, if not properly cooled, heats the SiPM, whose performance parameters depend on temperature. Heating studies were performed with a KETEK SiPM, glued on an Al2_2O3_3 substrate, which is either directly connected to the temperature-controlled chuck of a probe station, or through layers of material with well-known thermal resistance. The SiPM is illuminated by a LED operated in DC-mode. The SiPM current is measured and used to determine the steady-state temperature as a function of power dissipated in the multiplication region of the SiPM and thermal resistance, as well as the time dependencies for heating and cooling. This information can be used to correct the parameters determined for radiation-damaged SiPM for the effects of self-heating. The method can also be employed for packaged SiPMs with unknown thermal contact to a heat sink. The results presented in this paper are preliminary

    Perioperative use of prothrombin complex concentrates

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    Prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) are purified drug products with hemostatic activity derived from a plasma pool. Today, PCCs contain a given and proportional amount of four non-activated vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors (II, VII, IX, and X), a variable amount of anticoagulant proteins (proteins C and S, and in some antithrombin) and low-dose heparin. In some countries PCC products contained only three clotting factors, II, IX, and X. Dosage recommendations are based on IU of F-IX, so that one IU of F-IX represents the activity of F-IX in 1 mL of plasma. Reversion of the anticoagulant effect of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in cases of symptomatic overdose, active bleeding episodes, or need for emergency surgery is the most important indication for PCCs and this effect of PCCs appears to be more complete and rapid than that caused by administration of fresh frozen plasma. They may be considered as safe preparations if they are used for their approved indications at the recommended dosage with adequate precautions for administration, and have been shown to be effective for reversing the effect of VKAs. Their adequate use based on decision algorithms in the perioperative setting allows a rapid normalization of International Normalized Ratio (INR) for performing emergency surgery, minimizing bleeding risk. This review aims to propose two algorithms for the use of PCCs in the perioperative setting, one to calculate the PCCs dose to be administered in a bleeding patient and/or immediately before urgent surgery, based on patient's clinical status, prior INR and INR target and another for reversing the action of oral anticoagulants depending on urgency of surgery

    Evidence for Quark-Hadron Duality in the Proton Spin Asymmetry A1A_1

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    Spin-dependent lepton-nucleon scattering data have been used to investigate the validity of the concept of quark-hadron duality for the spin asymmetry A1A_1. Longitudinally polarised positrons were scattered off a longitudinally polarised hydrogen target for values of Q2Q^2 between 1.2 and 12 GeV2^2 and values of W2W^2 between 1 and 4 GeV2^2. The average double-spin asymmetry in the nucleon resonance region is found to agree with that measured in deep-inelastic scattering at the same values of the Bjorken scaling variable xx. This finding implies that the description of A1A_1 in terms of quark degrees of freedom is valid also in the nucleon resonance region for values of Q2Q^2 above 1.6 GeV2^2.Comment: 5 pages, 1 eps figure, table added, new references added, in print in Phys. Rev. Let

    Nuclear Polarization of Molecular Hydrogen Recombined on a Non-metallic Surface

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    The nuclear polarization of H2\mathrm{H}_2 molecules formed by recombination of nuclear polarized H atoms on the surface of a storage cell initially coated with a silicon-based polymer has been measured by using the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering. The molecules are found to have a substantial nuclear polarization, which is evidence that initially polarized atoms retain their nuclear polarization when absorbed on this type of surfac

    The Q2Q^2-dependence of the generalised Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn integral for the deuteron, proton and neutron

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    The Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) sum rule connects the anomalous contribution to the magnetic moment of the target nucleus with an energy-weighted integral of the difference of the helicity-dependent photoabsorption cross sections. The data collected by HERMES with a deuterium target are presented together with a re-analysis of previous measurements on the proton. This provides a measurement of the generalised GDH integral covering simultaneously the nucleon-resonance and the deep inelastic scattering regions. The contribution of the nucleon-resonance region is seen to decrease rapidly with increasing Q2Q^2. The DIS contribution is sizeable over the full measured range, even down to the lowest measured Q2Q^2. As expected, at higher Q2Q^2 the data are found to be in agreement with previous measurements of the first moment of g1g_1. From data on the deuteron and proton, the GDH integral for the neutron has been derived and the proton--neutron difference evaluated. This difference is found to satisfy the fundamental Bjorken sum rule at Q2=5Q^2 = 5 GeV2^2.Comment: 12 pages, 10 figure

    Hadron shower decomposition in the highly granular CALICE analogue hadron calorimeter

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    The spatial development of hadronic showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel analogue hadron calorimeter is studied using test beam data collected at CERN and FNAL for single positive pions and protons with initial momenta in the range from 10 to 80 GeV/c. Both longitudinal and radial development of hadron showers are parametrised with two-component functions. The parametrisation is fit to test beam data and simulations using the QGSP_BERT and FTFP_BERT physics lists from Geant4 version 9.6. The parameters extracted from data and simulated samples are compared for the two types of hadrons. The response to pions and the ratio of the non-electromagnetic to the electromagnetic calorimeter response, h/e, are estimated using the extrapolation and decomposition of the longitudinal profiles.Comment: 38 pages, 19 figures, 5 tables; author list changed; submitted to JINS
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