6,851 research outputs found

    System for Umbilical Artery Monitoring

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    journal articleBiomedical Informatic

    Novel observables for exploring QCD collective evolution and quantum entanglement within individual jets

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    We postulate that non-perturbative QCD effects occurring during parton fragmentation can result in collective effects of a multi-parton system, reminiscent of those observed in high-energy hadronic or nuclear interactions with large final-state particle multiplicity. Proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider showed surprising signatures of a strongly interacting, thermalized quark-gluon plasma, which was thought only to form in collisions of large nuclear systems. Another puzzle observed earlier in e+e‚ąíe^{+}e^{-} collisions is that production yields of various hadron species appear to follow a thermal-like distribution with a common temperature. We propose searches for thermal and collective properties resulting from parton fragmentation processes using high multiplicity jets in high-energy elementary collisions. Several novel observables are studied using the PYTHIA 8 Monte Carlo event generator. Experimental observation of such collectivity will offer a new view of non-perturbative QCD dynamics of multi-parton systems at the smallest scales. Absence of any collective effects may offer new insights into the role of quantum entanglement in the observed thermal behavior of particle production in high energy collisions.Comment: 14 pages, 12 figures. Updated to mirror version accepted by journa

    Do You Ever Miss Me, Dearest?

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    Sex-specific predictors of improved walking with step-monitored, home-based exercise in peripheral artery disease

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    The aim of this study was to determine whether baseline clinical characteristics and the duration and intensity of ambulation during our step-monitored home-based exercise program were predictive of changes in ambulatory outcomes at completion of the program in symptomatic patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Twenty-two men (ankle‚Äďbrachial index (ABI) = 0.71 ¬Ī 0.19) and 24 women (ABI = 0.66 ¬Ī 0.23) completed the home exercise program, consisting of intermittent walking to mild-to-moderate claudication pain for 3 months. Ambulatory outcome measures were peak walking time (PWT) and claudication onset time (COT) during a treadmill test, and the distance recorded during a 6-minute walk distance test (6MWD). Men experienced significant increases (p<0.01) in COT, PWT, and 6MWD following the home exercise program, and women had significant increases in 6MWD (p<0.01) and PWT (p<0.05). In women, average exercise cadence during the home exercise sessions was the only predictor that entered the model for change in COT (p=0.082), and was the first predictor in the model for change in PWT (p=0.029) and 6MWD (p=0.006). In men, the ABI was the only predictor that entered the model for change in 6MWD (p=0.002), and ABI was a predictor along with metabolic syndrome in the model for change in COT (p=0.003). No variables entered the model for change in PWT. Faster ambulatory cadence during the step-monitored home-based exercise program may predict greater improvements in ambulatory function in women, whereas having less severe PAD and comorbid burden at baseline may predict greater improvements in ambulatory function in men. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00618670Yeshttps://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/manuscript-submission-guideline

    Analysis of Surface Charging for a Candidate Solar Sail Mission Using NASCAP-2K

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    The characterization of the electromagnetic interaction for a solar sail in the solar wind environment and identification of viable charging mitigation strategies are critical solar sail mission design tasks. Spacecraft charging has important implications both for science applications and for lifetime and reliability issues of sail propulsion systems. To that end, surface charging calculations of a candidate 150-meter-class solar sail spacecraft for the 0.5 AU solar polar and 1.9 AU LI solar wind environments are performed. A model of the spacecraft with candidate materials having appropriate electrical properties is constructed using Object Toolkit. The spacecraft charging analysis is performed using Nascap-2k. the NASA/AFRL sponsored spacecraft charging analysis tool. Nominal and atypical solar wind environments appropriate for the 0.5 AU and 1.0 AU missions are used to establish current collection of solar wind ions and electrons. Finally, a geostationary orbit environment case is included to demonstrate a bounding example of extreme (negative) charging of a solar sail spacecraft. Results from the charging analyses demonstrate that minimal differential potentials (and resulting threat of electrostatic discharge) occur when the spacecraft is constructed entirely of conducting materials, as anticipated from standard guidelines for mitigation of spacecraft charging issues. Examples with dielectric materials exposed to the space environment exhibit differential potentials ranging from a few volts to extreme potentials in the kilovolt range

    Learning the subtle dance: the experience of therapists who deliver mentalisation-based therapy for borderline personality disorder

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    Objectives: This study aimed to understand therapists’ lived experiences of delivering mentalisation-based therapy (MBT), including their experiences of service user change. / Method: One-to-one semi-structured interviews or focus groups were conducted with 14 MBT therapists and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). / Results: Four superordinate themes were identified: 1) experiencing the challenges and complexities of being with service users during MBT; 2) being on a journey of discovery and change; 3) being an MBT therapist: a new way of working and developing a new therapeutic identity; and 4) being a therapist in the group: seeing it all come together / Conclusion: Our findings highlight the complexity, challenges and individualised experience of working therapeutically with service users with a diagnosis of BPD. The study provides a perspective of service use change that is enriched by idiosyncrasies within the therapeutic encounter. We conclude with a consideration of implications for MBT research and clinical practice

    Evolutionary game dynamics in phenotype space

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    Evolutionary dynamics can be studied in well-mixed or structured populations. Population structure typically arises from the heterogeneous distribution of individuals in physical space or on social networks. Here we introduce a new type of space to evolutionary game dynamics: phenotype space. The population is well-mixed in the sense that everyone is equally likely to interact with everyone else, but the behavioral strategies depend on distance in phenotype space. Individuals might behave differently towards those who look similar or dissimilar. Individuals mutate to nearby phenotypes. We study the `phenotypic space walk' of populations. We present analytic calculations that bring together ideas from coalescence theory and evolutionary game dynamics. As a particular example, we investigate the evolution of cooperation in phenotype space. We obtain a precise condition for natural selection to favor cooperators over defectors: for a one-dimensional phenotype space and large population size the critical benefit-to-cost ratio is given by b/c=1+2/sqrt{3}. We derive the fundamental condition for any evolutionary game and explore higher dimensional phenotype spaces.Comment: version 2: minor changes; equivalent to final published versio

    Optics-less smart sensors and a possible mechanism of cutaneous vision in nature

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    Optics-less cutaneous (skin) vision is not rare among living organisms, though its mechanisms and capabilities have not been thoroughly investigated. This paper demonstrates, using methods from statistical parameter estimation theory and numerical simulations, that an array of bare sensors with a natural cosine-law angular sensitivity arranged on a flat or curved surface has the ability to perform imaging tasks without any optics at all. The working principle of this type of optics-less sensor and the model developed here for determining sensor performance may be used to shed light upon possible mechanisms and capabilities of cutaneous vision in nature
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