333 research outputs found

    In the Shadow of Service: Veteran Masculinity and Civil–Military Disjuncture in the United States

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    In the period since the abolition of the draft the number of soldiers and veterans in the United States, in both absolute and relative terms, has declined. At the same time the United States has become increasingly militarized at home and dependent on the global projection of force. In this article I explore the impact of these apparently contradictory developments, focusing on the post-service lives of what I call mobilized veterans—those veterans actively involved with veterans’ organizations. In the context of such veterans’ organizations the consequences of militarization in a context of increased alienation of civilian life from the military as institution become visible in the gendered performances and identities of veterans struggling to inhabit subjectivities that at once demonstrate normality and yet draw upon the potential authority of military masculinity

    The Warrior Ethos: Discourse And Gender In The United States Army Since 9/11

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    At the heart of current doctrinal debates in the United States Army between counter-insurgents and warfighters is a fight over the gender identity of the institution itself. With women making up an increasing portion of the Army the default \u27maleness\u27 of the institution has become problematic. This has been exacerbated by post-9/1l battlefields in which soldiers not traditionally trained for combat operations, including women, come into contact with the enemy. The Army\u27s response has been twofold. First it has created a new institutional gender identity - the warrior - that is meant to provide women and soldiers traditionally not directly involved in combat with a covering masculinity. Second it has resisted and rejected non-combat operations as insufficiently warrior like. This has created conflict with counterinsurgents seeking to apply modes of power less oriented to destruction - so-called kinetics and more towards domination and transformation

    Davidsonian semantic theory and cognitive science of religion

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    This article investigates the extent to which the cognitive science of religion (CSR) and Donald Davidson’s semantic holism (DSH) harmonize. We first characterize CSR, philosophical semantics (and more specifically DSH). We then note a prima facie tension between CSR and DSH’s view of First-Person Authority (that we know what is meant when we speak in a way that we do not when others speak). If CSR is correct that the causes of religious belief are located in cognitive processes in the mind/brain, then religious insiders might have no idea what they are talking about: only the scholar of CSR would have a chance of knowing what they ‘really’ mean. The article argues that the resolution to this problem is to take seriously DSH’s rejection of semantic bifurcation, specifically rejecting the idea that religious and non-religious language can be sharply distinguished. We conclude by supporting the following claims: (i) common cognitive neural/psychological processes are explanatorily relevant in proposed meaning-theories for any discourse, and (ii) those processes need semantic supplementation with reference to external and naturalistic factors (biological, cultural, environmental etc.)

    Low-input, high quality legume hays for north Queensland

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    Perennial herbaceous legumes grown for hay can improve beef and dairy production in north Queensland through providing affordable high-quality (digestible protein) dry season feed. Eleven Arachis ecotypes (A. pintoi (5), A. glabrata (3), A. paraguariensis (2) and A. kretschmeri (1)), two Stylosanthes guianensis varieties and two commercially recommended Medicago sativa varieties were grown for hay under irrigation using standardised populations in replicated small-plots over two wet seasons (summer) and compared for dry matter production and fodder quality using 8 week cutting cycles. All initially grew well but M. sativa plants were damaged by leaf and stem diseases during wet summer periods reducing leaf and stem growth and resulting in open, weedy stands; the Arachis and Stylosanthes were relatively unaffected and exhibited strong summer-dominant growth throughout the study. There were significant species and varietal differences in biomass production and some A. pintoi, M. sativa and S. guianensis produced over 30 T DM (stem plus leaf above 5 cm cut height) over 19 months. Arachis glabrata also yielded well (16-18 T DM) following a prolonged establishment phase. Feed quality was high for all legumes compared, and overall best in the Arachis spp., with crude protein percentages mostly above 16% and high levels of protein and carbohydrate rumen degradability

    Measuring Fundamental Galactic Parameters with Stellar Tidal Streams and SIM PlanetQuest

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    Extended halo tidal streams from disrupting Milky Way satellites offer new opportunities for gauging fundamental Galactic parameters without challenging observations of the Galactic center. In the roughly spherical Galactic potential tidal debris from a satellite system is largely confined to a single plane containing the Galactic center, so accurate distances to stars in the tidal stream can be used to gauge the Galactic center distance, R_0, given reasonable projection of the stream orbital pole on the X_GC axis. Alternatively, a tidal stream with orbital pole near the Y_GC axis, like the Sagittarius stream, can be used to derive the speed of the Local Standard of Rest (\Theta_LSR). Modest improvements in current astrometric catalogues might allow this measurement to be made, but NASA's Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) can definitively obtain both R_0 and \Theta_LSR using tidal streams.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ Letters (minor text revisions). Version with high resolution figures available at http://www.astro.caltech.edu/~drlaw/Papers/GalaxyParameters.pd

    Teoria semântica davidsoniana e ciência cognitiva da religião

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    This article investigates the extent to which the cognitive science of religion (CSR) and Donald Davidson’s semantic holism (DSH) harmonize. We first characterize CSR, philosophical semantics (and more specifically DSH). We then note a prima facie tension between CSR and DSH’s view of First-Person Authority (that we know what is meant when we speak in a way that we do not when others speak). If CSR is correct that the causes of religious belief are located in cognitive processes in the mind/brain, then religious insiders might have no idea what they are talking about: only the scholar of CSR would have a chance of knowing what they ‘really’ mean. The article argues that the resolution to this problem is to take seriously DSH’s rejection of semantic bifurcation, specifically rejecting the idea that religious and non-religious language can be sharply distinguished. We conclude by supporting the following claims: (i) common cognitive neural/psychological processes are explanatorily relevant in proposed meaning-theories for any discourse, and (ii) those processes need semantic supplementation with reference to external and naturalistic factors (biological, cultural, environmental etc.).Keywords: cognitive science of religion, cognitive theory, holism, semantics, philosophy of language, religious studies, theory of religion.Este artigo investiga o quanto a ciência cognitiva da religião (CCR) e o holismo semântico de Donald Davidson (HSD) se harmonizam. Primeiro caracterizamos a CCR, a semântica filosófica (e mais especificamente o HSD). Notamos, então, uma tensão prima facie entre a CCR e a visão do HSD sobre a Autoridade da Primeira Pessoa (que sabemos o que significa quando falamos de uma forma que não fazemos quando os outros falam). Se a CCR estiver correta em afirmar que as causas da crença religiosa estão localizadas nos processos cognitivos da mente/cérebro, então os membros de dentro da religião podem não ter ideia do que estão falando: somente o acadêmico da CCR teria a chance de saber o que eles realmente querem dizer. O artigo argumenta que a resolução para este problema é levar a sério a rejeição do HSD à bifurcação semântica, rejeitando especificamente a ideia de que as linguagens religiosa e não-religiosa podem ser nitidamente distinguidas. Concluímos com as seguintes afirmações: (i) processos neurais/psicológicos cognitivos comuns são explicitamente relevantes em teorias de significado propostas para qualquer discurso, e (ii) esses processos precisam de suplementação semântica com referência a fatores externos e naturalistas (biológicos, culturais, ambientais, etc.). Palavras-chave: ciência cognitiva da religião, teoria cognitiva, holismo, semântica, filosofia da linguagem, ciências da religião, teoria da religião

    Comparing comparison: Smith and Davidson

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    Nos últimos anos, vários autores têm criticado a comparação, como método na ciência da religião. Grande parte da discussão aborda o que chamamos da dilema da comparação religiosa: ou as semelhanças entre os casos comparados são reais e as diferenças acidentais, ou as diferenças são reais e as semelhanças meramente aparentes. No primeiro caso, o ato da comparação impõe semelhanças de uma maneira artificial, privilegiando erroneamente uma das coisas a serem comparadas, o que pressupõe uma visão essencialista, afirmando que as suas características servem como medida de todo caso comparável. No segundo caso, as diferenças entre os casos a serem comparados são vistas como uma barreira insuperável, minando a própria premissa da comparação. Argumentamos que este aparente dilema pressupõe uma concepção representativa do significado, ou seja, que a comparação tem como meta descobrir qual tipo de coisa é representada pelos casos que estão sendo comparados. Entretanto, existem outras concepções do significado que podem potencialmente evitar ou resolver o dilema, reorientando a concepção básica de comparação, ao invés de entrar em detalhes dos recentes debates críticos. Este artigo afirma que o interpretarismo, uma abordagem do significado associada ao filósofo Donald Davidson, faz exatamente isso. JZ Smith não adotou explicitamente uma teoria semântica. Mas demonstramos que todos os seus principais elementos em seu trabalho de comparação se sustentam na base de uma visão interpretarista. As obras de Smith representam um modelo rico e detalhado de como a comparação prossegue sob uma semântica interpretativa. Este artigo tem duas implicações importantes para o estudo da religião. Primeiro, ela dissolve o dilema da comparação religiosa, sugerindo uma base teórica e metodológica mais firme para estudos comparativos. Segundo, sublinha que o trabalho de Smith serve como um modelo poderoso e prático do método comparativo, construído a partir desta base. Como corolário, oferece um benefício colateral interdisciplinar: a leitura de Smith à luz de Davidson também faz contribuições importantes para a filosofia da linguagem
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