6,303 research outputs found

    Unified Treatment of Quantum Fluctuation Theorem and Jarzynski Equality in Terms of microscopic reversibility

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    There are two related theorems which hold even in far from equilibrium, namely fluctuation theorem and Jarzynski equality. Fluctuation theorem states the existence of symmetry of fluctuation of entropy production, while Jarzynski equality enables us to estimate the free energy change between two states by using irreversible processes. On the other hand, relationship between these theorems was investigated by Crooks for the classical stochastic systems. In this letter, we derive quantum analogues of fluctuation theorem and Jarzynski equality microscopic reversibility condition. In other words, the quantum analogue of the work by Crooks is presented.Comment: 7pages, revised versio

    Quantum Kinetic Theory VI: The Growth of a Bose-Einstein Condensate

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    A detailed analysis of the growth of a BEC is given, based on quantum kinetic theory, in which we take account of the evolution of the occupations of lower trap levels, and of the full Bose-Einstein formula for the occupations of higher trap levels, as well as the Bose stimulated direct transfer of atoms to the condensate level introduced by Gardiner et al. We find good agreement with experiment at higher temperatures, but at lower temperatures the experimentally observed growth rate is somewhat more rapid. We also confirm the picture of the ``kinetic'' region of evolution, introduced by Kagan et al., for the time up to the initiation of the condensate. The behavior after initiation essentially follows our original growth equation, but with a substantially increased rate coefficient. Our modelling of growth implicitly gives a model of the spatial shape of the condensate vapor system as the condensate grows, and thus provides an alternative to the present phenomenological fitting procedure, based on the sum of a zero-chemical potential vapor and a Thomas-Fermi shaped condensate. Our method may give substantially different results for condensate numbers and temperatures obtained from phenomentological fits, and indicates the need for more systematic investigation of the growth dynamics of the condensate from a supersaturated vapor.Comment: TeX source; 29 Pages including 26 PostScript figure

    Markovian feedback to control continuous variable entanglement

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    We present a model to realize quantum feedback control of continuous variable entanglement. It consists of two interacting bosonic modes subject to amplitude damping and achieving entangled Gaussian steady state. The possibility to greatly improve the degree of entanglement by means of Markovian (direct) feedback is then shown.Comment: 4 pages Revtex, new figures, added comment

    Quantum turbulence and correlations in Bose-Einstein condensate collisions

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    We investigate numerically simulated collisions between experimentally realistic Bose-Einstein condensate wavepackets, within a regime where highly populated scattering haloes are formed. The theoretical basis for this work is the truncated Wigner method, for which we present a detailed derivation, paying particular attention to its validity regime for colliding condensates. This paper is an extension of our previous Letter [A. A. Norrie, R. J. Ballagh, and C. W. Gardiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 040401 (2005)] and we investigate both single-trajectory solutions, which reveal the presence of quantum turbulence in the scattering halo, and ensembles of trajectories, which we use to calculate quantum-mechanical correlation functions of the field

    Simulation of complete many-body quantum dynamics using controlled quantum-semiclassical hybrids

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    A controlled hybridization between full quantum dynamics and semiclassical approaches (mean-field and truncated Wigner) is implemented for interacting many-boson systems. It is then demonstrated how simulating the resulting hybrid evolution equations allows one to obtain the full quantum dynamics for much longer times than is possible using an exact treatment directly. A collision of sodium BECs with 1.x10^5 atoms is simulated, in a regime that is difficult to describe semiclassically. The uncertainty of physical quantities depends on the statistics of the full quantum prediction. Cutoffs are minimised to a discretization of the Hamiltonian. The technique presented is quite general and extension to other systems is considered.Comment: Published version. Broader background and discussion, slightly shortened, less figures in epaps. Research part unchanged. Article + epaps (4+4 pages), 8 figure

    Quantum turbulence in condensate collisions: an application of the classical field method

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    We apply the classical field method to simulate the production of correlated atoms during the collision of two Bose-Einstein condensates. Our non-perturbative method includes the effect of quantum noise, and provides for the first time a theoretical description of collisions of high density condensates with very large out-scattered fractions. Quantum correlation functions for the scattered atoms are calculated from a single simulation, and show that the correlation between pairs of atoms of opposite momentum is rather small. We also predict the existence of quantum turbulence in the field of the scattered atoms--a property which should be straightforwardly measurable.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures: Rewritten text, replaced figure

    Theory of the Ramsey spectroscopy and anomalous segregation in ultra-cold rubidium

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    The recent anomalous segregation experiment of Lewandowski et al. (PRL, 88, 070403, 2002) shows dramatic, rapid internal state segregation for two hyperfine levels of rubidium. We simulate an effective one dimensional model of the system for experimental parameters and find reasonable agreement with the data. The Ramsey frequency is found to be insensitive to the decoherence of the superposition, and is only equivalent to the interaction energy shift for a pure superposition. A Quantum Boltzmann equation describing collisions is derived using Quantum Kinetic Theory, taking into account the different scattering lengths of the internal states. As spin-wave experiments are likely to be attempted at lower temperatures we examine the effect of degeneracy on decoherence by considering the recent experiment of Lewandowski et al. where degeneracy is around 10%. We also find that the segregation effect is only possible when transport terms are included in the equations of motion, and that the interactions only directly alter the momentum distributions of the states. The segregation or spin wave effect is thus entirely due to coherent atomic motion as foreseen in the experimental reportComment: 26 pages, 4 figures, to be published in J. Phys.

    Tripartite entanglement and threshold properties of coupled intracavity downconversion and sum-frequency generation

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    The process of cascaded downconversion and sum-frequency generation inside an optical cavity has been predicted to be a potential source of three-mode continuous-variable entanglement. When the cavity is pumped by two fields, the threshold properties have been analysed, showing that these are more complicated than in well-known processes such as optical parametric oscillation. When there is only a single pumping field, the entanglement properties have been calculated using a linearised fluctuation analysis, but without any consideration of the threshold properties or critical operating points of the system. In this work we extend this analysis to demonstrate that the singly pumped system demonstrates a rich range of threshold behaviour when quantisation of the pump field is taken into account and that asymmetric polychromatic entanglement is available over a wide range of operational parameters.Comment: 24 pages, 15 figure
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