82,028 research outputs found

    Theory of Transmission of Light by Sub-wavelength Cylindrical Holes in Metallic Films

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    This paper presents theory and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations for a single and arrays of sub-wavelength cylindrical holes in metallic films presenting large transmission. These calculations are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. This effect has to be understood in terms of the properties exhibited by the dielectric constant of metals which cannot be treated as ideal metals for the purpose of transmission and diffraction of light. We discuss the cases of well-differentiated metals silver and tungsten. It is found that the effect of surface plasmons or other surface wave excitations due to a periodical set of holes or other roughness at the surface is marginal. The effect can enhance but also can depress the transmission of the arrays as shown by theory and experiments. The peak structure observed in experiments is a consequence of the interference of the wavefronts transmitted by each hole and is determined by the surface array period independently of the material. Without large transmission through a single hole there is no large transmission through the array. We found that in the case of Ag which at the discussed frequencies is a metal there are cylindrical plasmons at the wall of the hole, as reported by Economu et al 30 years ago, that enhanced the transmission. But it turns out, as will be explained, that for the case of W which behaves as a dielectric, there is also a large transmission when compared with that of an ideal metal waveguide. To deal with this problem one has to use the measured dielectric function of the metals. We discuss thoroughly all these cases and compare with the data.Comment: 13 pages and 9 figure

    Low Voltage I-V Characteristics in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

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    We show that elastic currents that take into account variations of the tunnel transmitivity with voltage and a large ratio of majority to minority spin densities of states of the ss band, can account for the low voltage current anomalies observed in magnet-oxide-magnet junctions. The anomalies can be positive, negative or have a mixed form, depending of the position of the Fermi level in the ss band, in agreement with observations. Magnon contribution is negligible small to account for the sharp drop of the magnetoresistance with the voltage bias.Comment: 8 pages, 3 postscript figure

    Towards High-order Methods for Rotorcraft Applications

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    This work presents CFD results obtained with an efficient, high-order, finite-volume scheme. The formulation is based on the variable extrapolation MUSCL-scheme, and high-order spatial accuracy is achieved using correction terms obtained through successive differentiation. The scheme is modified to cope with physical and multiblock mesh interfaces, so stability, conservativeness, and high-order accuracy are guaranteed. Results with the proposed scheme for steady flows, showed better wake and higher resolution of vortical structures compared with the standard MUSCL, even when coarser meshes were employed. The method was also demonstrated for unsteady flows using overset and moving grids for the UH-60A rotor in forward flight and the ERICA tiltrotor in aeroplane mode. The present method adds CPU and memory overheads of 47% and 23%, respectively, in performing multi-dimensional problems for routine computations

    Light Collimation and Focussing by a Thin Flat Metallic Slab

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    We present experimental and theoretical work showing that a flat metallic slab can collimate and focus light impinging on the slab from a punctual source. The effect is optimised when the radiation is around the bulk, not at the surface, plasma frequency. And the smaller the imaginary part of the permittivity is, the better the collimation. Experiments for Ag in the visible as well as calculations are presented. We also discuss the interesting case of the Aluminium whose imaginary part of the permittivity is very small at the plasma frequency in UV radiation. Generalization to other materials and radiations are also discussed.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures. To be published on Optics Lette
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